“Barriers to Using the Menstrual Cup among Schoolgirls”

Purpose: Many girls in South Africa miss school due to insufficient resources during menstruation. Although menstrual cups are cheaper and more environmentally friendly than pads or tampons, they are not widely known or used. This project investigates the awareness of the menstrual cup and barriers to using it among schoolgirls. Method: Girls in grades 8 and 11 at a local school were asked to complete a questionnaire before and after watching a video about the menstrual cup. Results: The results showed that 54% of younger girls and 92% of older girls had heard of the cup but in each group only 1 girl had used it. About 11% of younger girls and 40% of older girls would consider using the cup. Watching the video had both positive and negative effects on the girls’ opinions about using the cup. Conclusion: There are several barriers to using the menstrual cup among school girls. Overcoming these barriers requires more than just dissemination of factual information about the cup. Workshops with small group discussions would more than likely lead to more girls choosing the cup.


本研究採用受試者內實驗法進行設計,以2*2*2=3個因子(糖分*刺激口味*咀嚼時間),加上2次不同時間咀嚼運動與對照組,一共有11次實驗。每次實驗量測短期記憶與短期工作記憶共6種題項,並透過心律變異器、簡單的腦波偵測儀與問卷調查,瞭解咀嚼口香糖對於情緒放鬆的影響。 研究結果發現:咀嚼無糖口香糖對於數字廣度記憶有較佳的效果,反倒是咀嚼有糖薄荷口香糖時,則數字廣度記憶效果最差,甚至比單純咀嚼運動或對照組來得差。其次,在情緒放鬆上,受試者都認為咀嚼有糖薄荷口香糖,其糖分的味覺與薄荷的嗅覺有助於放鬆情緒,但透過心律變異器量測交感神經活性指數與副交感神經活性指數,反倒是增加緊張與焦慮的情緒。其次,從記憶力與心律變異結果得知-有糖分的口香糖會使得情緒較為緊繃與無法鬆懈,因此導致記憶力也跟著有降低的趨勢。但如果經過咀嚼15分鐘後,再進行記憶力量測時,其情緒較為輕鬆而記憶力也有所提升。 咀嚼口香糖對於記憶與情緒並沒有太大改變增加,因此,本研究建議如果真的有咀嚼口香糖習慣的人,可咀嚼15到20分鐘再進行相關工作,如此將有稍顯幫助工作績效。但咀嚼有糖分與刺激口味的口香糖,可能會造成反效果。


本研究主要目的是以黃色小鴨的參觀風潮與商品特質,探討高中生對療癒系物品的偏好為何。黃色小鴨在全球形成一股風潮,許多人認為參觀黃色小鴨有紓壓的功能,也有人認為買小鴨玩偶陪伴自己,有療癒心情的效果,因此,本研究的主軸分別從「黃色小鴨的參觀活動」與「療癒系商品(HSP)特質」兩個大面向進行探討分析,釐清高中生對黃色小鴨療癒系物品(RDRP)的偏好為何。本研究對象為臺灣南部地區的高中生共254位,以「療癒商品與相關活動感受問卷」進行施測,分析結果顯示:(1) 對於療癒商品,女生喜好與購買意願均大於男生,其中又以「仿生造形型」類型最受歡迎;(2) HSP以「規律動作型」、「擬生命行為型」,而RDRP以「仿生造形型」、「手觸摸型」較能藉由放鬆及平衡情緒,達到療癒效果;(3) HSP與RDRP均以「聲控及感音型」較能藉由轉移情緖及產生驚喜,達到療癒效果。


異族效應可能是造成種族歧視的原因。本研究透過按鍵反應及腦波儀的形式,對本國人及高加索人兩族群進行受試。實驗中,我們給予受試者兩種族群、正反兩種方向和七種情緒的刺激材料,請受試者辨識情緒,受試完畢後再利用ANOVA、EEG lab等分析行為實驗數據及腦波圖。分析結果發現:按鍵反應方面,高加索人較會辨認情緒,也表現出較強的同理心;本國人對兩種族皆產生面部倒置效應、高加索人則僅對於本國人產生;高加索人判斷正臉情緒時會有異族效應,本國人判斷時則正反皆無。腦波儀方面,每一種情緒的異族效應是相似的,就腦內影響的區域而言,本國人面部倒反效應多由枕葉影響,高加索人則多由額葉影響,本國人異族效應由右腦影響,且僅出現在刺激後150~200毫秒,高加索人則未呈現異族效應。另外,異族效應與面部倒反效應間具有交互作用,於是在臉部辨識上的正反差異就會呈現不同結果。將上述結果進一層地推論,可得知異族效應是後天學習行為,而面部倒反效應則是受本能與後天學習共同影響而產生。 期望本研究結果未來能運用在社會議題或心理學研究上,減少異族效應可能產生的負面影響。

What really attracts boys to girls

The purpose of this research was to challenge misconceptions about what attracts teenaged boys to girls. It has been observed that some teenaged girls hold stereotypes about boys and believe boys are only attracted to superficial qualities like beautiful hair. The aim is to investigate differences between what girls believe boys find attractive about them and what boys actually find attractive about girls. Hypothesis: There is a significant difference between what teenaged boys find attractive in girls and what teenaged girls think boys find attractive. Procedure Background reading was done to discover which characteristics are commonly used to measure attractiveness among teenagers. A survey questionnaire was used for gathering data. To gather information for the construction of the questionnaire, 4 focus groups were interviewed. The groups were asked to determine indicators of attraction and repulsion. Two separate questionnaires were designed (one for boys and one for girls), based on focus group information, with similar questions which could be used to compare results. Questions were related to personality and looks. The research was representative as 399 teenagers participated in the final survey. Results were collated in Excel tables. Percentages were calculated by using a scientific calculator and Excel. A bivariate analysis was created to examine the main question: ranking qualities that attract boys to girls. A comparison was made between boys’ and girls’ opinions from different age categories. Mean averages were calculated for this question. Other questions were analysed using mode averages translated into percentage of each gender. Graphs were designed using the values calculated. Observations/Data/Results 72% of boys prefer a girl with average looks and an awesome personality but only 37% of girls believed that to be true. The average boys from 12-14, 15-17 and 18-20 year old categories agree that confidence, humour, a nice body, politeness and intelligence are the five most attractive qualities in a girl they would consider dating. The order of these five change across the age groups but are constantly the top five, however confidence and humour always trump a “nice body”. The average 12-14 and 15-17 year old girl overrates a nice body and underrates politeness and intelligence but confidence and humour feature in their top five. The average 18-20 year old girl agrees with the boys priorities. When defining what makes a girl beautiful, 68% of boys highlight personality traits and 59% of boys mentioned physical features. When noting what repulses boys about pretty girls, more than 50% of both sexes agree that smelling bad was most off putting. 52% of boys mentioned taking drugs as unattractive yet only 23% of girls recognized this as repulsive. Conclusions The data supports the hypothesis. Confidence and humour are more important to the average boy than a nice body across all age groups. The younger the girl, the less she understands what attracts boys. 63% of teenaged girls believe that looks are more important to boys than personality. This is clearly not true. 72% of boys value a great personality more highly than good looks.

The Effect of Hands Free - Cell Phone Conversation on Visual Fields

It is a known fact that using a cell phone while driving can lead to reckless driving. According to research done by the World Health Organisation (2011) thousands of car accidents occur worldwide, each day, due to cell phone use whilst driving. Many of these car accidents result in serious injury or death of drivers, passengers or pedestrians. According to the Automobile Association (2012), cell phones are the number one cause of traffic accidents in South Africa. The high rate of car accidents due to cell phone use has led to legislation being passed, in most countries, banning hand-held cell phone use while driving. Hands-free phone equipment is not prohibited as it is widely regarded as a safe means of making and taking a phone call while behind the wheel. The purpose of this study was to show that the act of talking on a cell phone and not the method of talking (hand-held versus hands-free) increases accident probability. This study used a Friedman Visual field analyser which measures subject’s visual fields with and without engaging in hands-free cellular conversation. The results showed a significant constriction of the visual fields when subjects were conversing on a cell phone. These results were and can be explained by the fact that the test subject experiences cognitive distraction. Cognitive distraction occurs because the driver has to divide his/her attention between the cell phone conversation and the tasks relating to driving. These results have significant ramifications for road safety in a driving environment.


為探討青少年壓力對生活的影響,我們在網路上進行問卷調查,調查12~18歲的青少年對自身所感受到的壓力所進行的自我評估。 統整後,決定以青少年時期之小鼠作為模型,探討睡眠剝奪對青少年學習的影響,並討論男女差異。生理狀態方面得知睡眠剝奪會使體重成長較緩慢,且由曠野實驗發現睡眠剝奪不會大幅影響自主活動量。 學習與記憶方面利用新奇事物測驗測量短期記憶,在公鼠身上可以看到睡眠剝奪會影響公鼠的短期記憶;母鼠在此實驗中控制組與操作組無顯著差異。長期記憶與空間記憶部分利用巴恩斯迷宮測試,發現性別間無顯著差異,各性別控制組與睡眠剝奪組間亦無顯著差異。



Migration Data-Driven Mathematical Model for New City Growth

The growth of a city and the population movement has many correlations. However, the complex interaction causes difficulties in developing a mathematical model needed for analyzing the growth factor of a city and the movement factor of population. The model involving traditional equations cannot explain many phenomenon. The newly introduced data-science suggests possibilities to overcome these difficulties. Particularly, the abundant amount of accumulated data proposes a new solution for the problem we have. Throughout these steps, data-utilizing methodology, such as machine learning for artificial intelligence, are researched and developed with attention. In this research, data about accumulated for previous population movement and city growth are collected, and a mathematical science model based on data is developed to explain population movement and city growth by utilizing data analyzing methods such as machine learning. Especially, artificial neural network and stratified advance learning(deep learning) proves possibilities in solving many problems. This research aims to construct an artificial neural network appropriate for population movement and consequently use it in developing population movement model. Using this model, growth of many existing cities can be explained and furthermore, examining the population movement factor of a city and social factor necessary for city growth become possible. This model is expected to become the tool for resolving overpopulation and predicting and deciding factors needed for a new future city. In spite of decreasing population, it is still important to develop a model for population movement that well explains city growth and environment change.

What would you do?——以捷運實地實驗探討旁觀者的助人行為

本研究透過實地實驗的方式,旨在針對旁觀者表現的助人行為作探討。研究者於台北捷運站分別扮演強勢者、弱勢者以及普通人的角色,並且讓強勢者表現違反社會常規的行為(欺凌弱勢者),從旁紀錄當以上三者分別需要幫助時,旁觀者表現的幫助比率,進一步分析其中的差異。實驗結果主要顯示以下三點: (一) 幫助率普遍皆低於50% (二) 對照組的普通人獲得的幫助率明顯高於另外兩者 (三) 強勢者獲得的幫助率高於弱勢者 由此推知在類似情況下,弱勢的形像反而會降低旁觀者的幫助意願。因此我們分別從事件本身、旁觀者本身、社會因素、服從權威現象等面向分析此結果,並佐以過去的相關實驗及文本資料,以期獲得現今大眾普遍表現的助人行為及背後的影響因素。