Colour Blindness

Purpose of Research\r Colour blind individuals make up a large part of the population but are not usually considered. I aim to design an interactive guide that can be used when designing websites, social networking pages and various digital presentations to ensure that they are legible to colour blind individuals, by determining which colours generally confuse both red-green and blue-yellow colour blind people.\r Procedures\r I e-mailed my test, which consisted of 240 slides depicting every possible combination of the 16 basic web colours in the form of a frame, a heading-appropriate sized text and a paragraph-appropriate sized text, to a group of red-green and blue-yellow colour blind individuals, as well as an equally sized control group. I asked them to flip through the slides at a comfortable pace and note the slides that were difficult to read offhand, thus getting an idea of which colour combinations are not suitable for colour blind individuals, as well as the combinations that are not visible to those with normal colour vision.\r Data\r I wrote up my results using tables and stacked column graphs to determine which colour combinations were not visible to an unusually great number of test subjects. I then represented the information I collected in the form of a flash guide. This interactive guide allows one to choose a background colour from a wheel of 16 colours, and then be given a choice of appropriate text colours. The user is also presented with an example of the combination that was chosen, showing how the text appears on the background. The guide is easy to navigate and understand, can be posted on the internet or e-mailed, and is not overly technical so it can be used by designers as well as ordinary internet users.\r Conclusion\r Colour blind people are easily confused by colour combinations which might seem clear to us. My hypothesis was proved as I was able to set up a guide that would make it possible for both colour blind individuals and those with normal colour vision to read the text on websites, social networking pages and digital presentations.


Purpose Although Body Mass Index (BMI) is accepted by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as the standard method of measuring a person’s obesity or lack thereof, it is restriction to the two measurements of height and weight. This makes its accuracy questionable. By using other easily obtainable body measurements, a better way of evaluating Body Mass Index is possible. The purpose of this project was to show that the BMI formula is only accurate to a certain degree and that its validity varies depending on certain factors used in my project. Procedure 50 Adolescent female aged 16-20 and 50 women aged 40-56 none of whom were noticeably obese or underweight volunteered. Using a simple questionnaire, several measurements were taken – age in months, caliper measurement of tricep and hip bone, shoe size, height in metres, hip waist and wrist measurements (cm), exercise per week, heart rate and body type. Results were tabulated and graphs drawn using EXCEL. BAI (Body Adiposity Index) measurements were calculated for all volunteers. Results The girls and women with pear and hourglass figures were classified by BMI as overweight or obese. The girls and women who exercised a lot were also unfairly classified by their BMI readings. Many of the graphs show that BMI is not accurate, however, others show that there is merit to the formula. Conclusions The results while interesting require a larger sample group to be conclusive. It would appear that the BMI formula needs to be extended in order to improve its accuracy. Further research includes: 1. Larger sample group, 2. Representative age groups, 3. Investigate males, 4. Look at data for different ethnic groups, 5. Research into BAI formula as a possible substitute, 6. Develop an improvement on BMI. Although, there is some merit to BMI formula, it could be greatly improved with the use of other measurements including those used in this project.

Crying Babies

a. PURPOSE: Do babies between 0 – 3 months have certain sound reflexes that can be interpreted as a language? Can parents be helped to understand their newborn babies better? Are parents aware of infantile speech patterns and language acquisition in babies? b. PROCEDURES: 70 Babies of different cultures were tested to determine if the 5 crying-sounds can be an indication of the baby's need. Questionnaires and information were given out at hospitals and clinics. Doctors, paediatricians, sisters and parents were involved in my project. DVD's were made to show and explain the different sounds. c. DATA: I obtained my data from the questionnaires, interviews with parents, doctors, paediatricians and the staff working in the labour-wards. 70 Babies were tested (68 responded) and I listened to every cryingsound to make sure that there are only 5 different sounds. I made a DVD from all the sounds of the babies that I've tested. Data were also gathered from science. d. CONCLUSIONS: According to all the research and sources, I can positively say that a person can identify the reason why babies (0-3 months) are crying. Babies of any culture, have universal sounds that indicate their needs. The different sounds are: EH – upper gas, EAIRH – lower gas, HEH – discomfort, OWH –tired, NEH – hungry.

Viable Energy From Ocean Waves

(a) Purpose of Research To investigate the wave conditions offshore along the South African coast to determine wave heights, intervals, and patterns. These results have demonstrated the power potential of ocean waves and identified sites for offshore power stations. The waves off of the South African coast are the most viable, as they have wave heights of between 2.7m (9ft) and 14.6m (48ft). It is also to assist in the development of my power station design, through research into offshore wave composition, principles, periods and characteristics. (b) Procedures I have used various calculations including the surface pressure of salt water per square meter to calculate the potential power produced by a buoy. These figures have been expressed in Kilowatt Hours, and are then able to be divided by the known consumption of a single USA household in 1 year. A figure of the amount of households that can be supplied by a single generator will then be reached. An approximate power output for a single buoy is between 200 and 300 homes per year (Dependant on wave height) A concept for a maintenance free electrical generator suitable for marine use has been investigated. The design will be made as: ● A working demonstration model capable of producing electricity, which consists of a Rotary Induction Generator, ● a scale model to show the appearance of one such generator & ● A large scale model to show how generators can be congregated to form a power station offshore. (c) Data Utilising the calculations of potential power output and the wave data, the financial viability of the generator has been calculated, in relation to current fossil fuel power stations, down to a cost per Kilowatt. Wave data from international marine monitoring websites that provide real time wave condition graphs, have been tracked by myself daily for over 1 month and recorded to provide a large data resource. This provides wave heights of multiple weather systems as well as averages. Costs have been investigated from Internet sources for electrical integration to the national power grid, as well as the generator manufacture. These are estimates, as the exact specifications of my device cannot be finalised without further prototypical research. (d) Conclusion With conclusions reached by thorough research into wave dynamics, weather patterns and their effects on wave heights, Rotary induction power generation and costs related to multiple power systems, I intend to demonstrate fully to the International Electrical Producers, that coal fired power plants are more costly and environmentally damaging than my revolutionary concept for a truly economically viable, ocean based generator system.

Powerless Shack Cooler

Purpose of Project: To save energy and to help the underprivileged with a cooler that uses no electricity to make their lives better. Procedure/method followed: STEP 1: Collected 28, used, 2 litre plastic bottles. STEP 2: Chose the window with the best wind flow. Measured the size of the window and the room chosen. STEP 3: A sturdy thick polystyrene board was cut to the size of the window. Holes were drilled to the rim size of the bottles spacing them according to the body size of the bottles. STEP 4: Bottles were cut in half. STEP 5: The bottle necks were slid through the holes with the necks open to the inside of the room and the bodies open to the outside. STEP 6: Fixed a thermometer in the room and measured the temperature and recorded it. STEP 7: Fixed the Powerless Shack Cooler with the necks of the bottles open to the inside and the bodies open to the outside of the room. STEP 8: The temperature variation was checked and recorded every 30 minutes for 3 hours. STEP 9: Another room of the same size and window was also chosen. Fixed a thermometer and temperature variation was checked and recorded every 30 minutes for 3 hours. This served as the control of the experiment. Data/results: The room temperature decreased over time inside the room where the Powerless Shack Cooler was installed onto the window. But the control room maintained the initial room temperature although slight fluctuations in the room temperature were observed over time. Conclusion: The hypothesis was supported. As the air molecules moved through the bottles, it bounced off each other, and off the walls of the container, holding the air. A small volume of air passed at a high velocity. When the molecules moved faster the collision became more often. These collisions and the push increased air pressure. When the container’s space was getting smaller, the molecules picked up speed and the temperature went up. When the air was released out into the room, the volume suddenly expanded. The intermolecular spaces became larger; so less agitation and vibration of molecules took place. The molecules moved slowly. The room temperature reduced. Air inside the room became cooler. During the adiabatic expansion, air molecules used heat energy from the room and converted it into kinetic energy for faster movement.

Drawing versus Clay

1. Purpose of Research / Project The purpose of this research was to find out whether clay has any diagnostic value as a three-dimensional medium compare to drawing which is two dimensional medium and to determine if learners would prefer to work with clay or to rather draw a picture when depicting their ″feeling-stories″. Furthermore to do research on the effect that different coloured clay has on the emotions and behavior of learners during therapy. 2. Procedure A number of learners from different backgrounds, ages and cultures were used in this empirical research. They were asked to draw a ″feeling-story″ with a two-dimensional medium and then depict a ″feeling-story″ with different coloured clay which is a three-dimensional medium. Afterwards they had to describe their stories. They also had to choose what they liked best-the two-dimensional medium (drawing) or the three-dimensional medium (clay). 3. Data From the results it was clear that clay projections have diagnostic value. The learners were able to communicate their ″feeling-story″ better by using the three-dimensional figures in a verbal and non-verbal way. Through actions and the choice of coloured clay they used, they could portray and describe their emotions and symbolic messages. This indicated that they enjoyed the clay projections more than the drawings they made. 4. Conclusion From my research I found that clay as a three-dimensional medium has diagnostic value and can be applied as a supplementary projection medium. Different coloured clay can be associated with different emotions and behaviours in children. More learners preferred to work with clay (three-dimensional) as a medium in depicting their ″feeling-story″ rather than drawing two-dimensional pictures.

Bodmas action!

Purpose of the Research:\r 1) To determine whether a poor understanding and inability of Grade 7 and 8 learners to apply the BODMAS principle in mathematics, influences scores obtained in a mathematics test.\r 2) To determine whether scores obtained in the given mathematics test can be improved with a BODMAS learning tool.\r Procedures:\r 1. Get the educators opinion on mathematics in schools. Send a total of 50 questionnaires to four schools.\r 2. Determine what percentage of a mathematical test/examination requires the application of BODMAS\r 3. Do a pre-test at two schools, a total of 370 grade 7 and 8 learners.\r 4. Design a BODMAS learning tool and verify it with three educators.\r 5. Implement the tool at the two schools.\r 6. Do a post-test at the two schools.\r 7. Get all the educators who were at the implementation session to evaluate the session.\r 8. Investigate two other schools, by sending 270 pre-tests to those two schools, to determine whether applying the BODMAS principle correctly is also a problem for learners in those schools.\r 9. Implement the BODMAS learning tool into the intermediate phase syllabus.\r Data:\r 1. Of the 41 educators in the sample, 52% think the standard of maths in their schools is average.\r 2. 38.9% of a grade 8 mathematics examination paper and 46% of grade 8 mathematics tests contains questions that are BODMAS related.\r 3. The learners achieved an overall average of 22.57% in the pre-test\r 4. The educators evaluated the BODMAS learning tool as very good as it is.\r 5. Learners and educators enjoyed the implementation session of the BODMAS learning tool.\r 6. In the post test learners did much better, the overall average increased by 21.00% to 43.57%.\r 7. Educators were positive about the way in which the tool was explained.\r 8. The learners in the other two schools also struggled with applying the BODMAS principle.\r 9. A second pilot study is being done in four primary schools by the Department of Education for the implementation in the Free State mathematics 2013 syllabus. \r Conclusion:\r My hypothesis is supported. \r 1) A poor understanding and inability of Grade 7 and 8 learners to apply the BODMAS principle in mathematics, influenced scores obtained in a mathematics test.\r 2) Scores obtained in the given mathematics test were improved with a BODMAS learning tool.


It is used by practically everyone that has vehicle. The device checks your spare wheel and wams you when it is going flat.

The Sunflower Peeler

It is used by pigeon owners, farmers and squatters. The machine peels thesunflower seeds and leaves them separate from each other. The seeds can be used for pigeons,birds and making of flour. The shells of the seeds can be used as compost and ferilizer. This is an eco-friendly system.

“Barriers to Using the Menstrual Cup among Schoolgirls”

Purpose: Many girls in South Africa miss school due to insufficient resources during menstruation. Although menstrual cups are cheaper and more environmentally friendly than pads or tampons, they are not widely known or used. This project investigates the awareness of the menstrual cup and barriers to using it among schoolgirls. Method: Girls in grades 8 and 11 at a local school were asked to complete a questionnaire before and after watching a video about the menstrual cup. Results: The results showed that 54% of younger girls and 92% of older girls had heard of the cup but in each group only 1 girl had used it. About 11% of younger girls and 40% of older girls would consider using the cup. Watching the video had both positive and negative effects on the girls’ opinions about using the cup. Conclusion: There are several barriers to using the menstrual cup among school girls. Overcoming these barriers requires more than just dissemination of factual information about the cup. Workshops with small group discussions would more than likely lead to more girls choosing the cup.