IPod Super Dock

Gene Targeting Using Chimeric RNA-DNA Oligonucleotide for Capase-10 in Various Cell Types

The process of gene targeting via Chimeraplasty is achieved by using a RNA-DNA oligonucleotide homologous to a gene of interest ,to introduce a single base pair or frameshift mutation in genomic DNA .The extensive use of chimeraplasty is currently limited by wide variation in its gene conversion rates(.01-40%) and its mechanism of action remains to be fully understood. For cell studies, chimeraplasty is an alternative strategy to homeologus recombination in generating gene knockout models.

The Solution to Global Water Pollution?

The waters of the Benguela, the Atlantic Ocean off South Western African shorelines, are amongst the most productive in the world, supporting prolific marine life. However despite the abundance of animals, survival in this marine ecosystem is not always easy. Oxygen-deficient bottom water, often containing toxic hydrogen sulphide, is a feature of the northern Benguela coastal upwelling system. Here, superfluous cells from excess phytoplankton production, decay and sink to the bottom to form the oozy diatomaceous mud belt sediment off the Namibian coastline. Within this diatomaceous mud further intensified decay takes place to form toxic hydrogen sulphide in the sediment. Sporadically large amounts of the hydrogen sulphide are released into the water column, causing the deadly annual "sulphur" events, as they are locally known in Namibia, to take place. Sulphur eruptions result in the deaths of thousands of marine animals. This marine system off the Namibian coast, with its harsh natural conditions of hydrogen sulphide and low oxygen, is similar to an ecosystem suffering intensive marine pollution. These natural conditions of the Benguelan waters are closely related to the conditions of many coastal areas suffering from the global marine pollution problem, created by man all over the world, through the discharge and disposal of wastes, such as nitrate fertilisers, sewage and biological decay material. A specialsed group of bacteria known as sulphur bacteria occur within the sulphidic conditions of the sediments. Sulphur bacteria actually use some of the produced toxic hydrogen sulphide in the sediments, converting it to harmless elemental sulphur micro granules in their cytoplasm. Where no other life occurs, due to the harsh conditions unfriendly to most marine lifr, sulphur bacteria thrive. Sulphur bacteria control and decrease the amount of hydrogen sulphide, which goes from the sediment into the water, through their complex metabolic systems. The biggest and most effective sulphur bacteria, only found off the Namibian coast, were dubbed Thiomargarita namibiensis. Thio means sulphur and namibiensis refers to its occurrence in Namibia. This giant sulphur-eating microbe is the earth's biggest known bacterium, visible to the naked eye. I conclude with a personal hypothesis to suggest a solution to global water pollution by utilising this magnificent bacterium. Through bacterial cultivation and processing Thiomargarita namibiensis could be employed in tacking extent of global marine pollution. The bacteria use toxic hydrogen sulphide as "fuel" for their metabolism and nitrate as an oxidizing agent, to produce harmless sulphur granules. This explains the bacteria's effectivity in removing nitrate and hydrogen sulphide wastes, the forms most biological wastes eventually occur in, from the water. This spectacular process, as it occurs within these magnificent "sulphur pearl strings", could be the sensational answer to the regeneration of polluted marine waters on a worldwide scale. This absolutely natural treatment of the water would not bear any harmful consequences such as those artificial treatment leaves behind. Sewage treatment or denitrifying treatments applied by man on polluted water leaves chemical discharge and damage to affected ecosystems. Especially Thiomargarita could be used in the regeneration of rural and urban waters (should those survive in fresh water)and sewage schemes as well as most marine waters, due to its high effectivity in removing hydrogen sulphide from affected water. It is not the solution to global water pollution to fight chemicals with chemicals. Nature has provided an excellent and valuable resource that could enable absolute natural recovery within polluted marine ecosystems. We should dedicate ourselves towards such magnificent discoveries and help nature help itself. Research on these Sulphur bacteria(especially Thiomargarita namibiensis)is very recent and ongoing. I recently enjoyed the privilege of a 24 hour marine research ship cruise off the Namibian coast with marine biologists from the Namibian Ministry for Fisheries and Marine Resources, to obtain mud cores holding Thiomargarita namibiensis bacteria. Several chemical tests are done and biological reactions are studied to collect the necessary data concerning Thiomargarita namibiensis. The discovery of Thiomargarita namibiensis awoke worldwide scientific excitement and interest. Its application to solve the problem of global water pollution would be a spectacular scientific breakthrough for the human race.

Promoting Metal Adhesion to Electrospun Fibers and olymer Thin Films with Gold Nanoparticles and Sup

As electronics continue to shrink in size, the cost and environmental impact of current methods of production are increasing dramatically. The purpose of this experiment was to lay the groundwork in another potential method of creating nanowires and printed circuit boards. We believe that through the exposure of supercritical CO2, metalized electrospun fibers with gold nanoparticles will have increased conductivity. In addition, the adhesion of metal to polymer thin films can be controlled with a poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) mask on both silicon and Kapton substrates. This study found that a specific concentration of gold nanoparticles can make a solution of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in chloroform that cannot be electrospun, spinnable. Scanning electron microscopy also confirmed that scCO2 smoothes the surface of the fibers and makes them more uniform. EDX analysis also found that exposure to scCO2 also removed all residues of solvent and cross.sectional transmission electron microscopy showed that the nanoparticles were conglomerated near the surface. In conclusion, scCO2 and gold nanoparticles respectively enhanced the morphology of the fibers and made the electrospinning process more robust. Cross.sectional analysis also showed that the nanoparticles attracted the deposited gold into the fiber making prongs reach from the deposition into the fiber, but there was no test to quantify the adbesion. Using the spray bottle test, the gold still remained on wires. The resistivity of the micro wires was extremely close to that of gold creating resistances within hundreds of ohms over hundreds of micrometers of wires. Thin Films masked with PEO were exposed to scCO2 and metalized with gold or copper. Atomic force microscopy analysis shows unique crystallization formations of poly (capro lactone) (PCL) after scCO2 exposure. ASTM standard peel tests determined that the process was successful with PCL thin films. On the Kapton samples, peeling patterns reversed when the thickness became too great to melt in scCO2.+ Through perfecting these processes, the electronics industry can continue in its miniaturization while the environmental and monetary costs.

Computation of the Alexander-Conway Polynomial on the Chord Diagrams of

Development of an Inexpensive Raman System and a Littrow Spectrograph

「風笛」是台灣原住民鄒族的信號用具及祈雨法器,由一條繩子綁一支竹片構成。轉動風笛時,竹片會繞繩子自轉並拍打空氣而發出聲音,並有上下飛舞的現象。 \r 風笛產生聲音的原因,為竹片拍打空氣而造成的渦流共振現象;又由於繩子扭力大小及方向改變,使風笛的音調忽高忽低、響度忽大忽小、且竹片會在兩個平面上公轉,而有週期性變化。 \r 施力使風笛公轉轉速加快時,竹片自轉速率也變快,使其音調愈高、響度愈大;而繩愈短、愈粗時,竹片的公轉週期將愈短。

Characterization of the Zebrafish ghost(gho) Mutant

Titanium Dioxide(TiO2) Nanoparticle-based Solution as an Algal Growth Regulator

M24WS2 (Multiple Mode 4 Wheel Steering System)

\r The idea for my steering system started from a discussion with my Tech teacher about a wheel the Mechatronics and Robotics Research group of Massey University were working on. It featured precision shaped rollers at 45 degrees to the wheel’s axle. The idea was that with a number of these wheels a vehicle could go in any direction, depending on the rate that each wheel was revolving. \r

High Speed Size-exclusion Chromatography (SEC) Using Spherical Meso-structured Cellular Foam (MCF)

Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is often used to determine the molecular weights of and separate polymers and proteins. The porous packing of the SEC column effects the separation of molecules, with larger molecules eluting earlier. Interest in high-speed SEC for larger molecules has been building, especially for combinatorial polymerization reactions and online SEC-MS applications. Mechanical stability of the packing, which siliceous materials have more of than polymeric ones, therefore needs to be improved. Several silicas have been explored but limited pore sizes and pore volumes have restricted their usage to separating small molecules. Siliceous MCF templated using oil-in-water microemulsions has good potential for SEC packing because it has ultralarge pore size (20-50 nm), high porosity and sturdy skeleton. However conventional MCF consists of highly irregular particles and hence cannot be used as packing.