全國中小學科展

馬來西亞

Super Oil Absorbent Form Rubber Waste

There are three main threats that give disastrous outcomes to the ecosystem, oil spill in the open sea, non-biodegradable wrapping plastics and logging to accommodate the paper industry. The current oil absorbent available in the market nowadays are more of fibers with hydrophilic characteristics. As a result, the oil been absorbed cannot be reused and causing total lost to the oil companies. It is estimates that billions of Malaysian Ringgit(RM) lost due to this cause for the past ten years.\r The objective of this project is to produce oil absorbent that not only created from the Empty Fruit Bunch(EFB) as a recycling initiative but at the same time able to reuse back all the absorbed oil after that. On top of that to this, we also hope to produce a biodegradable wrapping paper from the same material.\r The initial step towards the production of this eco-absorbent is known as Compounding Process which involves the grinding of the EFB along with some used rubber. This is then followed by adding flour to the mixture and then cooked until it is matured. At the end of this process, the product is grinded into refined form. Based on the investigations conducted, this eco-absorbent able to absorb oil five times of its weight and using a minimal pressure, the absorbed oil can be recollected back hence use onwards without changing the oil physical or chemical properties.\r On the other hand, the eco-friendly wrapping paper made out of the same material also showed high durability and tensile index. In addition to this it also showed high flexibility folding index which enables this wrapping paper to be shaped and folded into various forms according to the customer needs. All of these positives characteristics suggest that this eco-friendly wrapping paper able to replace the conventional plastic wrapping paper available in the market nowadays.\r In conclusion, we are one step closer in reducing the environmental pollution by using the EFB to produce the eco-oil absorbent and wrapping paper that it’s not only stressed on recycling the waste materials and precious oil resources but at the same time helps to save billions of Ringgit by the oil companies.

BALANCE CONTROLLER(B.CON)

Balance Controller or B. Con is the latest millennium innovation that is very safe and effective in solving balancing problem of electrical equipments and furniture caused by uneven surfaces. This system includes syringe, liquid, and control panel. It is operated manually with the help of an indicator liquid B. Con does not only solve the balancing problem but it is also equipment that could prolong the durability of the electrical equipment or furniture.

The Usage of Bananan Stem in The Production of Baby's Diapers

In this project, the stem of the banana tree is innovated into the absorbent substance in the baby’s diapers. A water proof material too has been innovated . In the study carried out, several changes has been identified in the production of an environment friendly disposable diapers.The structure of water molecules and cellulose as well as charges in both materials will enable cellulose present in all green plants to absorb water easily and effectively. Cellulose is also insoluble in water or solvent. This project uses the banana stem due to its high cellulose content and furthermore the cellulose present has a very fine structure which will increase its absorbency rate. Baby’s urine will be absorb into the absorbent material through capillary actions due to surface tension that develops between the cellulose and baby’s urine. The absorbent substance in baby’s diapers available today in the market is made up of Polyacrilate (SAP) and cellulose which are extracted from hardwoods, particularly pine trees. The production of the absorbent substance from the cellulose will help to reduce the logging of hardwoods.

Turning Prawn Pond sludge into a fertifizer

This project is a research to find out if prawn pond sludge can be used as a fertilizer . This because so far there is no beneficial use of these prawn pond sludge from over 154,000 hectares of water pond culture in Sarawak . The objectives of this project were to determine if this sludge can be combined with topsoilito produce an eco-friendly and effective fertilizer for plants and to investigate what combination of sludge and top soil is the best for plant growth . It was found that sludge has high nutrient contents such as nitrogen , phosphorus , sulphur , potassium , calcium , magnesium and iron . The effectiveness of sludge as a fertilizer was investigated by growing water spinach or “kangkong” (Ipomoea aquatica) in 5 different mixture of sludge and topsoil for 3 weeks . After the third weeks , the results showed that the combination of 30% sludge and 70% topsoil produced the best results in terms of height of plant , survival , number of leaves , stem thickness and average plant weight as compared to the other combination of 0%:100% , 50%:50% , 70%:30% and 100%:0% sludge top soil ratio . Therefore , prawn ponds sludge has a great potential to be process to become a fertilizer .

Digital Viedo Compression Enhancement With Reduced Psychovisual Redundancy

Video compression is indispensable to web streaming and memory storage.Most video\r compression technology has difficulty to achieve high quality video at lower bit\r rates.Apparently,limited transmission bandwidth and network resources often degrade\r video signals.Thus the goal of my research was to enhance video degrade video\r signals.Thus the goal of my research was to enhance video compression performance and\r to improve visual quality.It is hypothesized that the reduction in neighboring pixels\r coding,and humans perceptual mechanisms(psychovisual)redundancy could produce a\r low-complexity geometry streams for animated visual objects.A set of algorithms is\r developed to parse bidirectional interpolation pixels into their characteristic cells,which\r vary in spectral energy and wavelength.The bits contained in these cells are vectorized and\r transformed recursively to identify lower correlations among vector arrarys for blocks\r filtering.DCT function calculates energy ratios between high spatial frequency and low\r spatial frequency,to devote most of the highest spatial frequency bits with the calculated\r energy ratios.A variable quantization method is used to measure the sensitivity of colors\r and its intensity ratios to restore any missing high spatial frequency pixels.presnted in\r mathematical intrinsic.This approach leads to the ability to compress video data that\r normally require a large amount of memory to store and high bandwidth to\r transmit,Results form the enhanced video compression experiment have attained\r 0.1bpp(256kbps,25fps)without noticeable effects comparable to the video compression\r technique that achieved 0.5bpp(1.5Mbps,25fps)in use today.

PALF As Alternative In Novelty Composite

Pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) which is rich in cellulose, abundantly available, relatively inexpensive, low density, nonabrasive nature, high filling level possible, low energy consumption, high specific properties, biodegradability and has the potential for polymer reinforcement. The utilization of pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) as reinforcements in thermoplastic form for developing low cost and lightweight composites Pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) is one of them that have also good potential as reinforcement in thermoplastic composite. The objective our research is to characterize PALF and to investigate the effect of fibre treatment on the mechanical properties of PALF reinforced polypropylene (PP) composite PALF was obtained from pineapple plantation after the harvesting. The we dry the PALF to remove the water. Next step is grind the PALF into small particle. Both PP and PALF were compounded using internal mixer machine prior to compression moulding via hot press machine to form a sheet. After forming the composite sheet, samples were prepared for tensile test (ASTM D638), flexural test (ASTM D790) and impact test (ASTM D256).

Reuse Waste and Save the World by Production Fiber Reinforced 'CB' made from Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB)

At present Malaysia is the largest exporter of palm oil in the international market. In the process of extraction of palm oil from oil palm fruit, biomass materials such as palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm pressed fibre (PPF) are generated as waste products. Natural fibres reinforced cement-based materials have gain increasing application in residential housing components. One of the natural fibres considered is oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) fibres which offer advantages such as availability, renewability, low cost and the established technology to extract the fibres. This study investigates the properties of cement board incorporated with large amount of oil palm EFB fibres Among the tests conducted was compressive strength, density, water absorption and thickness swelling tests. It was found that high EFB fibres content lead to lower strength and higher absorption . The results also indicate that high EFB fibres contents reduced the self-weight of the blocks and the resulting blocks can be classified as lightweight cement blocks suitable to be used as lightweight walling materials. Our research is to study the production of cement board using Empty fruit bunch(EFB)These board were made from empty fruit bunch, cement and water. Two chemical are added is aluminium sulphate and sodium silicate. Cement : EFB mixture by weight was 2.5:1, 2.75:1 and 3.0:1 used to produces a cement board.

Potential Diagnosis of Cancerous Cells Through Utilising Optical Spectroscopy

Cancer is responsible for an estimated 9.6 million deaths in 2018. Deaths from cancer worldwide are projected to reach over 13 million in 2030. Thus, developing a device that has the capability to solve today’s toughest global challenge is crucial by utilizing a simple yet robust approach - “SEEING THE UNSEEABLE” through bold innovation. Although removing cancer is much more effective than either radiation or chemotherapy, when unseen residual cancer cells remain, they could grow back into tumour overtime. The reoccurrence of cancer contributes to a greater risk of death. Hence, launching a system that is able to distinguish between the cancerous cell and normal cell is ultimately essential to make sure no cancer is left behind during surgery. This robust optical system is established with quantitative approach by exploring the integration of an algorithm into the developed software. The end result of this device has the capability to provide users an accurate numerical pH value. The developed system is integrated with the smart IoT gateway capability whereby this powerful analytical device is incorporated with the real-time monitoring, data transformation and data analyzer. Harnessing the power of technology lets us fight cancer better. Each time a pathologist analyzes tissue after operation, it can take up 2 to 3 days because the tissue has to be frozen, thinly sliced, and stained so it can be viewed under the microscope during the process of biopsy. Thus, it is crucial to invent this Surgeons’ VisionMetric device which has an IoT-based microcontroller that is capable of providing real-time numerical value on-site.

HYBRID COMPOSITE FROM X-RAY WASTE

This study considered the tensile and flexural characterization of new lighter and cheaper hybrid composite materials to replace the existing insert panel for the currently available bulletproof vest. The materials chosen included a natural fibre, i.e., kenaf fibre, chemically treated with sodium hydroxide solution, and, as a means of recycling, used x-ray films with a surface treatment. Using the traditional hand lay-up method, the materials were fabricated into seven layers of different configurations, which were then subjected to tensile and flexural tests. The findings showed that one of the configurations that consisted of both treated materials had a tensile strength of 396.9M Pa, which is quite strong, and a flexural modulus of 6.24G Pa, which makes it flexible enough to be made into wearable equipment. This configuration was then chosen to be the base design for the specimen subjected to impact test. The interfacial bond between the two distinct materials proved to be a major issue, even with the help of fibre treatment. Therefore, some improvements need to be made for the material to be comparable to existing materials performance-wise hence making this configuration suitable for ballistic application.

Sustainable G-Polymer From Industrial Waste

This study focuses on the pre-treatment of paper sludge ash (PSA) as a by-product of paper milling industry that contains high amount of calcium, yet low in silica. The presence of high calcium content in geopolymer system will accelerate the setting time of fresh geopolymer and may disrupt the development of its mechanical strength. Therefore, in this study, the refinement of PSA properties was conducted by treating raw PSA in hydrochloric acid solution with different molarities of 0.5 M, 1.0 M and 2.0 M. The pre-treatment process was mainly purposed to decrease the amount of calcium and other impurities through leaching mechanism. Based on the experimental results, 2.0 M hydrochloric acid solution (HCl) was determined as the optimum concentration due to its ability in removing higher amount of calcium from the ash, yet still able to increase the amount of silica. Compression test on the hardened properties of geopolymer specimen also showed the deceleration of fresh fly ash based geopolymer and produced a more workable fresh geopolymer.