# 烏克蘭

In today's world, medicine is very advanced, thanks to which many diseases that were previously considered incurable, are now treated almost all over the world. But, unfortunately, some diseases are still incurable and can only facilitate their course. One such disease is Raynaud's disease or Raynaud's syndrome. Statistics show that worldwide the percentage of patients with this disease is 3-4%. Raynaud's disease is a paroxysmal spasm of the arteries of the fingers of the hand, rarely the feet when cooling the extremities. As mentioned earlier, this disease is incurable. That is why the creation of a device that can help people overcome many inconveniences due to the inability to stay in the cold without gloves or the problem of discomfort in heated gloves is relevant. And one of the solutions to this problem is to create special heated gloves. This work is also relevant, because even existing treatments, such as medication and conservative, do not completely solve the problem of reducing the sensitivity of the hands when cooled or even the slightest moisture on the palms. Also, these methods are very expensive, so our device will be cheaper and more affordable than existing ones. When using our gloves together with the two already mentioned methods, the treatment will be more effective. Unfortunately, medical and conservative treatments will lead to complications over time, so we not only maintain sensitivity in the hands, but also prevent further amputation of the upper extremities and the emergence of human health problems associated with the effects of drugs on the whole body. Nowadays, people work hard to be able to live well, but it is difficult for people with Raynaud's phenomenon to do so, as the sensitivity of the upper extremities decreases during the exacerbation of the disease. It is important for us to maintain the sensitivity of the hands by normalizing the thermal balance of the hands, which leads to the elimination of spasms of the atria of the hand. The aim of the work is to create a simple and effective means to normalize and maintain the thermal balance of the upper extremities, in order to reduce the loss of sensitivity of the hands in patients, as well as reduce the likelihood of spasms of the arteries of the fingers. The subject of the study is the course of Raynaud's disease and the current treatments for it. The aim of the study is the creation of special gloves that can stop spasms of arteries and maintain blood flow in them by balancing the heat balance in the hand, and depriving patients of the disease during their wearing During the work the following tasks were set: - to theoretically investigate the peculiarities of Raynaud's disease; - to analyze the existing clothes on the market with heating; - to develop and improve its own design of heated gloves, which will be affordable and easy to use. - calculate the cost of gloves taking into account all factors

Research work on creating a lens, the optical power can be changed depending on human needs. Most people have visual impairments that need to be corrected with surgery or optical devices (glasses and contact lenses). The optical characteristics of the human eye vary depending on age, health, intensity of visual load. We propose to give people the opportunity to smoothly adjust the optical power of the spectacle lens by changing the transparent tubes between the two windows of transparent films. Experimental studies have shown the possibility of adjusting the optical power of the proposed line in a wide range. Existing devices and materials for changing the optical power of the line are analyzed. The design of a lens with variable optical characteristics is proposed, which is created from two window films, the space between which is filled with liquid. Publicly available materials for the outer shell of the lens and liquid for its filling. The effect of the amount of liquid to be filled on the optical power of the lens was experimentally determined. The formula for experimental finding of focal length of a lens is entered. Novelty is impossible because you can use the lens in another field. For example, in the future it is planned to perform an experiment with a lens system to create, for example, a telescope.

This work is devoted to solving the problem of orientation in the space of visually impaired people. Working on the project, a new way of transmitting visual information through an acoustic channel was invented. In addition, was developed the device, which uses distance sensors to analyze the situation around a user. Thanks to the invented algorithm of transformation of the information about the position of the obstacle into the sound of a certain tone and intensity, this device allows the user to transmit subject-spatial information in real time. Currently, the device should use a facette locator made of 36 ultrasonic locators grouped in 12 sectors by the azimuth and 3 spatial cones by the angle. Data obtained in such a way is converted into its own note according to the following pattern : the angle of the place corresponds to octave, the azimuth corresponds to the note and the distance corresponds to the volume. The choice of the notes is not unambiguous. However, we used them for the reason that over the centuries, notes have had a felicitous way of layout on the frequency range and on the logarithmic scale. Therefore, the appearance of a new note in the total signal will not be muffled by a combination of other notes. Consequently, a blind person, moving around the room with the help of the tone and volume of the sound signals, will be able to assess the presence and location of all dangerous obstacles. After theoretical substantiation of the hypothesis and analysis of the available information, we started the production of prototypes of the devices that would implement the idea of transmitting information via the acoustic channel.

The project is devoted to the study of the Seymour’s Second Neighborhood conjecture by determining the properties of possible counterexamples to it. This problem has remained unsolved for more than 30 years, although there is some progress in its solution. The vector of the research is aimed at the analysis of possible counterexamples to the conjecture with the subsequent finding of some of their characteristic values. In addition, attention is focused on the generalized Seymour’s conjecture for vertex-weighted graphs. Combinatorial research methods and graph theory methods were used in the project. The author determines the values of densities and diameters of possible counterexamples, considers separately directed graphs of diameter 3. The conditions under which specific graphs cannot be counterexamples to the Seymour’s conjecture with the minimum number or vertices are defined. The relationship between the Seymour’s conjecture and vertex-weighted Seymour’s conjecture is explained. It is proved that if there exists at least one counterexample, then there exist counterexamples with an arbitrary diameter not less than 3. Under the same condition, the existence of counterexamples with a density both close to 0 and close to 1 is also proved. The equivalence of the above two conjectures is substantiated in detail. It can be concluded that if the Seymour’s Second Neighborhood Conjecture is true for a directed graph of diameter 3, then it is true for any digraph, so that problem will be solved. Moreover, if the conjecture is true, then vertex-weighted version of this conjecture is true too. That is why a digraph of diameter 3 needs further research.

This work is devoted to solving the problem of orientation in the space of visually impaired people. Working on the project, a new way of transmitting visual information through an acoustic channel was invented. In addition, was developed the device, which uses distance sensors to analyze the situation around a user. Thanks to the invented algorithm of transformation of the information about the position of the obstacle into the sound of a certain tone and intensity, this device allows the user to transmit subject-spatial information in real time. Currently, the device should use a facette locator made of 36 ultrasonic locators grouped in 12 sectors by the azimuth and 3 spatial cones by the angle. Data obtained in such a way is converted into its own note according to the following pattern : the angle of the place corresponds to octave, the azimuth corresponds to the note and the distance corresponds to the volume. The choice of the notes is not unambiguous. However, we used them for the reason that over the centuries, notes have had a felicitous way of layout on the frequency range and on the logarithmic scale. Therefore, the appearance of a new note in the total signal will not be muffled by a combination of other notes. Consequently, a blind person, moving around the room with the help of the tone and volume of the sound signals, will be able to assess the presence and location of all dangerous obstacles. After theoretical substantiation of the hypothesis and analysis of the available information, we started the production of prototypes of the devices that would implement the idea of transmitting information via the acoustic channel.

The project is devoted to the study of the Seymour’s Second Neighborhood conjecture by determining the properties of possible counterexamples to it. This problem has remained unsolved for more than 30 years, although there is some progress in its solution. The vector of the research is aimed at the analysis of possible counterexamples to the conjecture with the subsequent finding of some of their characteristic values. In addition, attention is focused on the generalized Seymour’s conjecture for vertex-weighted graphs. Combinatorial research methods and graph theory methods were used in the project. The author determines the values of densities and diameters of possible counterexamples, considers separately directed graphs of diameter 3. The conditions under which specific graphs cannot be counterexamples to the Seymour’s conjecture with the minimum number or vertices are defined. The relationship between the Seymour’s conjecture and vertex-weighted Seymour’s conjecture is explained. It is proved that if there exists at least one counterexample, then there exist counterexamples with an arbitrary diameter not less than 3. Under the same condition, the existence of counterexamples with a density both close to 0 and close to 1 is also proved. The equivalence of the above two conjectures is substantiated in detail. It can be concluded that if the Seymour’s Second Neighborhood Conjecture is true for a directed graph of diameter 3, then it is true for any digraph, so that problem will be solved. Moreover, if the conjecture is true, then vertex-weighted version of this conjecture is true too. That is why a digraph of diameter 3 needs further research.