全國中小學科展

2022年

水熊蟲於化學環境壓力耐受機制探討Tolerance mechanisms of Tardigrade under chemical environmental stresses

常見模式生物檢測化學環境壓力後無法重複使用。本研究探討對環境變化敏感的大生熊蟲抗化學環境壓力機制,評估其作為重複使用模式生物可行性。得知多數大生熊蟲於硝酸鹽、酸鹼值改變與殺蟲劑環境壓力下仍能活動或隱生。以亞甲藍簡易染色可確認化學環境壓力下大生熊蟲是否受傷害,如體表角質層被破壞會導致完全染色。分析大生熊蟲於常見硝酸鹽環境壓力下體內脂質含量、總蛋白質單體表現量與總抗氧化能力,推測出大生熊蟲對抗硝酸鹽環境壓力機制:1.藉由> 20 kDa持續性活化蛋白抗硝酸鹽環境壓力。2.活動大生熊蟲增加體內脂質含量隔絕環境硝酸鹽。3.隱生大生熊蟲以抗氧化系統降低硝酸鹽產生的氧化壓力傷害。以上結果得知大生熊蟲具潛能檢測常見化學環境壓力並作為重複檢測之模式生物。未來將持續評估大生熊蟲可檢測的化學環境壓力並為人類健康把關。

HOST TARGET PROTEINS OF SPIKE PROTEIN OF SARS-COV-2

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerged infectious disease caused by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). In less than one year, the virus has spread around the entire world, killing millions of people and disrupting travel and business worldwide. During infection, the virus uses its Spike protein to dock onto the Ace2 protein on the surface of its human host cell. Spike is 1273 amino acids long and only a short fragment of Spike (319-541) is sufficient to bind Ace2. We hypothesized that the remaining protein sequences of Spike might have functions for viral replication beyond the binding of Ace2. We have performed Split-Ubiquitin protein-protein interaction screens to isolate human proteins by their ability to bind to Spike, and we have identified Annexin2A2 and Cytochrome b as novel human protein interaction partners of Spike. Annexin2A2 is involved in both endocytosis and exocytosis, and the protein interaction with Spike might help the virus to enter and exit its host cell. The presence of the mitochondrial Cytochrome b protein inside the cytosol promotes apoptosis, and the protein interaction with Spike could speed up sapoptosis of the infected human cell. The Nub cDNA libraries that we have generated also allowed us to screen for synthetic peptides that interact with Spike. We have isolated two synthetic peptides, FL1a and FL7a, derived from the non-coding parts of human mRNAs by their ability to interact with Spike. We found that both FL1a and FL7a interact with the C-terminal half of the Spike protein. We also found that FL7a is able to block the Spike-Spike self-interaction at the C-terminal half of the Spike protein and we think that this could block the reassembly of the Spike protein in the host cell during viral reassembly. We hope that those synthetic peptides could be used as drugs due to their ability to block protein-protein interactions of Spike with human host proteins that are essential for viral replication.

摘要演算法和語句分析之關聯性

在這個資訊發達的時代,網路充滿著五花八門的資訊,導致我們在查詢資料時會因為這些雜亂且未經過濾的資料浪費許多時間,其中最為氾濫的便是點擊誘餌(clickbait),此種新聞常常有著吸引人的標題,而內容卻不會與主題相符,人們也常常在讀完整篇文章後才意識到自己浪費了許多時間在無意義的資訊上面。解決此問題很常用的方法之一便是運用摘要演算法來讓讀者先對新聞有一個大概的理解,不過,雖然摘要演算法越來越普及,但產生出來的摘要仍會和人為判斷的結果有所差距,進而造成閱讀理解上的錯誤以及偏差,所以我們想要藉由這次研究,從一個嶄新的角度切入,探討摘要演算法和句型分析之間的關係,融合原本向量建構的方式以及語句結構的分析來測試摘要的準確度,並且由結果研發出一個可以產生出更為精確的主旨之摘要演算法,除此之外,我們也會融合實地調查以及搜集意見的方式來更進一步探討人們思模式與產生出的摘要之關聯性。

What is the relationship between angular velocity and power efficiency of a twin blanded single rotor helicopter system, in hover?

A traditional helicopter requires 60 - 80% more power to hover than when in forward or lateral flight, making the manoeuvre extremely power inefficient. To maximise efficiency, industrially many properties of the helicopter and rotor have been changed and tested, for example: optimising blade shape, fuselage shape and changing weights of different helicopter components. This report in particular aims to find a relationship between power efficiency and angular velocity for a twin bladed hovering helicopter with a single rotor. The angular velocity of a blade measures the frequency of its revolution about a fixed point. A theoretical approach was first taken and then justified with empirical data. Firstly, a model for power efficiency was derived with William Froude’s momentum and blade element theory. The efficiency equations incorporated the thrust and power coefficients. Therefore, the research focused on determining values for these coefficients by manipulating equations, using industrial specifications and simulations from the XFOIL software. In order to validate the accuracy for such theoretically generated data, an experiment was conducted for a comparison. The theoretical and empirical data were concurrent, as they followed a similar trend and the empirical values overlapped within the theoretical error bars. The power efficiency for different angular velocities were then found by substituting values for the coefficients. The results demonstrated a positive relationship; where, as angular velocity increases, power efficiency increases too, then plateaus and repeats the same trend once again. The research raises many questions and could be extended by determining if a similar relationship exists for tri-copters and quadcopters.

Limited Query Black-box Adversarial Attacks in the Real World

We study the creation of physical adversarial examples, which are robust to real-world transformations, using a limited number of queries to the target black-box neural networks. We observe that robust models tend to be especially susceptible to foreground manipulations, which motivates our novel Foreground attack. We demonstrate that gradient priors are a useful signal for black-box attacks and therefore introduce an improved version of the popular SimBA. We also propose an algorithm for transferable attacks that selects the most similar surrogates to the target model. Our black-box attacks outperform state-of-the-art approaches they are based on and support our belief that the concept of model similarity could be leveraged to build strong attacks in a limited-information setting.

高鹽飲食對果蠅學習與記憶能力的影響及其細胞與分子機制

先前論文指出高鹽飲食會造成果蠅睡眠間斷(Jiayu Xie et al., 2019)、減短果蠅壽命(Deng-Tai Wen et al., 2020)。而另一篇論文則以小鼠作為實驗對象,發現高鹽飲食會影響小鼠記憶和學習能力(Giuseppe Faraco et al., 2018)。根據上述,高鹽飲食在不同生物中可能影響神經系統的功能,但果蠅學習與記憶能力的影響還未被探討。因此,筆者以果蠅作為模式生物,研究高鹽飲食對其學習與記憶功能是否障礙及實驗其可能的細胞與分子機制。在將野生型果蠅進行測試後,選擇了Canton-S做後續實驗,並發現餵食Canton-S 四天的高鹽食物後學習及短期記憶表現下降,而進行實驗確認是由高鹽飲食導致此障礙,再研究了一系列相關研究。 本次實驗中,首次以餵食高鹽食物對果蠅學習與記憶障礙方面進行研究,並了解到高鹽飲食也會讓果蠅產生學習與短期記憶能力障礙。目前為了找出真正的細胞與分子機制提出可使用的方法,在實驗其他可能的機制。

PVA unveiled the actual role of starch in the Briggs-Rauscher reaction

The Briggs Rauscher reaction (BR reaction) is one of the famous oscillating reactions; the aqueous mixture of KIO3, H2SO4, H2O2, C3H4O4, MnSO4, and starch exhibit color change between yellow and blue-purple repeatedly. The blue-purple color formation is due to the iodine test reaction caused by inclusions of polyiodides such as I3- and I5- in the helical structure of starch. Therefore, starch has been regarded as only an indicator in the BR reaction. But our seniors have found that the oscillation did not last without starch. They hypothesized that starch’s linear helical framework is necessary to elongate the lifetime of the oscillating reaction. If this hypothesis is correct, similar BR-type oscillations must be observed when other polymers with helical structures are used instead of starch. We found the literature which reports that polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) forms a helical structure and indicates the iodine test reaction. In our research, we studied the BR reactions using PVA, with different saponification degrees and viscosities. First, we studied the correlation between the structural features of PVA and the iodine color reaction by spectroscopic approach, exhibiting that PVA with low saponification form helical structures and show the iodine color reactions, which gives red color solutions. Second, we found that additions of the helical-structured PVA to the reaction solution instead of starch induces the BR-type oscillating reactions, while PVA without helical structure induces only a few numbers of oscillations. This is the world-first example of the oscillating reaction using PVA. The oscillation that lasted for 6 minutes with 23 oscillations was almost the same as that of the general BR reaction using starch. We concluded that the polymers with helical structures are intrinsic to elongate the lifetime of the BR reaction. Furthermore, we found that the addition of K3[Fe(CN)6], which has a high redox activity, in the reaction solution with PVA drastically elongated the lifetime (50 min) and increased the numbers of the oscillations (nearly 100 times). This result suggests that the oxidation-reduction reactions by the ferricyanide ion promotes the redox process of iodine and iodide ions.

風驅電「極」- 陣列式無扇葉風力發電機

「無扇葉風力發電」是一種新型的能量擷取研究,透過渦流引起的震動將風能轉換成電能。傳統渦輪式風力發電利用風推動扇葉旋轉發電,受限於風向、成本、噪音及體積等問題無法在內陸得到普遍。先前已有外國公司發表初步的機構設計與發想概念,但目前仍只能針對單一風向進行發電。本研究提出新型機構設計,有效的運用了多方向風源,降低了風能的浪費。為了瞭解渦激振動與各項變因之間的關係,我們設計了多項實驗,藉由影像分析軟體Tracker,得出不同風速下桅杆晃動振幅與頻率之關係,並利用實驗分析採集器LabQuest 2,精確的得出單位時間內的平均流速與電壓變化,獲得流速與電壓頻率特性。 根據實驗結果,隨著風速的增長,電機產生的峰值電壓會有2次方的增長,且桅杆晃動頻率與風速和支點位置並無直接關係。

彩色二維條碼手持產品開發之探討

QR Code是由黑白模組組成的二維數位條碼,掃描後可讀取儲存的訊息。受限於設計原理,QR Code使用二進位制儲存資料。增加模組數目可增加資料量,但若在條碼內塞進太多模組時,尺寸太小的模組將無法被掃描器讀取。此外,目前QR Code掃描器僅支援單張掃描,並無法應付同時多張條碼掃描的實務需求。 如能克服顏色辨識,理論上彩色二維條碼將能克服現行QR Code的限制,但市面上並無相關產品可供測試。因此本專題設計了一款10×10、具8顏色的"Colour Matrix",並利用Raspberry Pi開發Colour Matrix在手持裝置上運作的軟硬體來進行實驗。此實驗成功利用機器學習演算法在Raspberry Pi上進行的顏色辨識。開發的程式在單張掃描上效能與使用pyzbar辨識QR Code相當;在多張掃描方面,使用pyzbar辨識QR Code的解碼成功率為3.1%,而本專題的方法將成功率提升至92.4%,擴增數位條碼的使用範圍,具商用價值。

The Use of Brine Shrimp to Test for Water Pollutants

The use of brine shrimp nauplii to test for the overall toxicity of sediment samples is proposed. Brine shrimp nauplii were cultured with different concentrations of heavy metals, including chromium (III), copper (II), nickel, lead and zinc, and organic pollutants, including triclosan, oxybenzone, octinoxate and bisphenol A. The brine shrimp nauplii were observed under a dissection microscope to determine the death rate. Results showed that brine shrimp nauplii are more sensitive to copper, cadmium, bisphenol A and oxybenzone. The LC50 (24h) are 55.5, 24.9, 5.6 and 2.7 ppm respectively. Zinc is likely to have synergistic toxic effect with nickel or lead. The synergistic toxic effects of other heavy metals and organic pollutants should be confirmed with further investigations. Brine shrimp nauplii were treated with extracts from sediment samples collected from the oyster culture zone of the Deep Bay, namely Pak Nei, Sha Kiu Tsuen and Hang Hau Tsuen. The sediment samples were extracted with neutral sodium acetate to dissolve the exchangeable heavy metal ions and some organic pollutants. The death rate of brine shrimp nauplii treated with the sediment extract of Hang Hau Tsuen was similar to 1 ppm PBA. It was also about 10 to 20% higher than that of the other two sites (Pak Nei and Sha Kiu Tsuen). Since Hang Hau Tsuen is closer to the residential area and Lau Fau Shan Seafood Market than the other two sites, its sediment sample is likely to have a higher level of environmental pollutants. The results suggest that brine shrimp nauplii may be used as a biomarker to monitor the environmental changes in the overall level of pollutants in sediment samples.