解開蔗糖水解的秘密

科展類別
臺灣國際科展
屆次
2006年
科別
化學科
學校名稱
高雄市立高雄女子高級中學
指導老師
蘇政宏
作者
張菁文、張明芳
關鍵字
蔗糖,水解
備註
紐西蘭正選代表:紐西蘭2006 年科技展覽會

摘要或動機

本研究利用偏振片、量角器為刻度盤、雷射光為光源,及照度計為偵測器,組裝一個簡易且可靠的旋光度計。我們利用單位時間旋光度的變化量當作反應速率,來測量蔗糖的水解速率,同時求出蔗糖水解反應的反應級數、速率常數(k)。利用糖類的旋光度具有加成性之特性,找出不同混合比例時的旋光度,追蹤實際蔗糖水解的每個狀態,找出最後平衡狀態,同時將蔗糖水解平衡結果顯示,旋光度與濃度有線性關係,而蔗糖水解反應對蔗糖而言為一級反應。接著,我們在蔗糖水溶液中加入不同種類的酸,探討催化劑的種類與蔗糖水解反應速率的關係。 In this research, in order to measure the optical rotation accurately without expensive equipments or complex process, we assembled a polarimeter by ourselves. With simple materials which can be found in ordinary senior high school laboratories, including a calibrated scale, a simple Luxmeter, a laser as the photo source, and other side devices. The Polarimeter ended up operating fluently and accurately. We put the laser under a tube, which has two pieces of polar screens on the top of it and on the bottom of it, ,and put a luxmeter just above the tube. When we slowly rotate the polar screen on the top, the figure shown on the luxmeter changes. By numerical analysis, we can get information about the hydrolysis of polarized substance. Secondary, we measured the optical rotation of glucose, fructose, malt sugar, galactose, and sucrose to get their specific rotation. Then we measured the optical rotation of sucrose every five minutes. By doing this, we could keep track of the hydrolysis rate of sucrose, figure out the order of reaction, and the rate constant (k) and the equilibrium constant (K). Thirdly, we used different kinds of acids into sucrose solution as the catalyst, and observed the effect. The result showed that hydrochloric acid is a better catalyst to this reaction than sulfuric acid and nitric acid. The polarimeter of this research can be used in science education of junior and senior high school. By teaching students to assemble and operate the self-made polarimeter, students can know better about optical rotation and polarized substance. Also, the interest in this experiement will add to students’ motivation to do science research.


「為配合國家發展委員會「推動ODF-CNS15251為政府為文件標準格式實施計畫」,以及 提供使用者有文書軟體選擇的權利,本館檔案下載部分文件將公布ODF開放文件格式, 免費開源軟體可至LibreOffice 下載安裝使用,或依貴慣用的軟體開啟文件。」

檔案名稱 檔案大小 格式
解開蔗糖水解的秘密 1 MB Adobe Reader(Pdf)檔案