臺灣國際科展

電離轉輪

科展類別
臺灣國際科展
屆次
2004年
科別
工程學
學校名稱
臺北市立第一女子高級中學
指導老師
李美英、陳文盛
作者
彭靖文
關鍵字
電離轉輪 放電現象

摘要或動機

This research primarily aims to observe how does the electric work, why does it work and the relationship between the surrounding circumstance and the repulsive torque. The electric whirl is made of an enameled wire bent into right angle with sharpened ends. When an AC high voltage is applied, the electric field intensity around the whirl ends is strong due to the small curvature radius of the ends. The molecules in air at both ends are ionized. This cause the phenomenon of point discharge. The positive and negative ions produced by alternating current forms AC ion wind, and produce a torque to make the whirl rotate. The object of this experiment is to observe the relationship between the surrounding circumstance and the torque repulsion. We design an apparatus to measure the angular velocity of the rotating whirl. We also calculated the kinetic energy of the whirl and the work done by the torque. The repulsive torque can be obtained by Work energy theorem. Result: (1)The angular velocity of the electric whirl is direct ratio to repulsive torque. When we want to find out the relationship between the manipulate reason and the repulsive torque, we can just compare the angular velocity with the manipulate reason. (2)The angular velocity of the electric whirl is only related to the peak voltage, and it does not make difference whether we apply AC high voltage and DC high voltage. (3)When the humidity is over 68%, the electric whirl cannot function normally. (4)Under the low-pressure circumstance, the electric whirl will rotate with glow discharge and the angular velocity will decrease to zero gradually.本實驗是探討電離轉輪的性質、原理與周圍環境的關係。「電離轉輪」為漆包線兩端折成直角並磨尖而成,接上交流高壓電源時,其尖端曲率半徑小,電場強度相對大,會游離尖端附近的空氣分子,產生尖端放電的現象,而交流電交替產生的正、負離子會形成交流離子風,並產生轉動力矩,使轉輪轉動。我們設計一個裝置,使其能偵測轉輪轉動的狀況,運用測得數據計算出轉動時的動能和作功狀況,套用功能定理便可求得轉輪通電時產生的斥力矩。實驗結果顯示(1)轉輪的角速度和尖端斥力矩成正相關,所以當我們想得知尖端斥力矩和實驗操縱變因的關係時,只要比較角速度和操縱變因就可以了,這簡化了原本繁複的計算和冗長的數據處理過程。(2)轉輪的角速度只和峰值電壓有關,和直流或交流沒有直接關係。(3)轉輪在超過溼度68%之後,就不會正常運作。(4)在低壓條件下,轉輪轉動時會伴隨淡紫色的輝光放電(glow discharge)現象,而抽氣塔中與轉輪尖端最接近的一點,也就是電場最強的一點,會和尖端同時產生光芒,相互輝映。


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