臺灣國際科展

人面蜘蛛藉調整絲基因表現及網結構促進捕食效率

科展類別
臺灣國際科展
屆次
2006年
科別
動物學
學校名稱
國立臺灣師範大學附屬高級中學
指導老師
卓逸民、黃淑芬
作者
趙依祈
關鍵字
人面蜘蛛 絲基因表現 捕食
備註
美國正選代表:美國第57 屆國際科技展覽會

摘要或動機

前人研究顯示結網性蜘蛛會因環境中獵物組成的改變而改變其網結構。然而,除了結構之外,構成網的絲的物理性質與蜘蛛網的捕捉效率也應有密切之關連,但目前並無人探討蜘蛛是否會因獵物而調整絲之化學及物理性質。在本研究中,我以人面蜘蛛為材料,探討:(一)其在面對不同類型之獵物時是否調整其網之結構,絲之胺基酸組成和其物理性質;(二)所產生之改變是否能促進不同類型獵物的捕食效率;以及(三)是獵物之養份或振動刺激引起這些改變。我藉著操控獵物的養份及振動刺激將人面蜘蛛分成四個處理組,分別餵以活蟋蟀(C 組),活蒼蠅(F 組),死蟋蟀加蒼蠅振動刺激(Cd 組)及死蒼蠅加蟋蟀振動刺激(Fd 組)。在完成食控處理後比較各組間之網結構、絲胺基酸組成、絲物理性質、對不同獵物之留置能力以及振動訊號傳遞能力。實驗結果顯示F 組之蜘蛛所結之網有較大的面積及較小的網目,並有較佳之蒼蠅留置力;然而此結構之改變卻會降低其振動訊號傳遞率。C 組之蜘蛛所結之網有較強之張力及較佳之蟋蟀留置力,而且其所產之曳絲有較高比例之alanine、glycine 及glutamine 並較佳之延伸度及韌度,以因應體型較大之獵物。上述結果顯示人面蜘蛛能調整網的結構、絲的蛋白質組成及物理性質來更有效率的捕捉不同類型的獵物。而由於上述各樣變數在C 及F 組間有顯著差異,而在獵物養份與振動訊號錯置的Cd 與Fd 組間無顯著差異,顯示此二項刺激需同時存在才能使人面蜘蛛在面對不同類型獵物時產生結網行為及絲基因表現之改變。Previous studies showed that orb-weaving spiders may adjust web structures when encountering different types of prey. In addition to web structures, silk physical properties should also be critical in affecting the prey catching efficiency of webs. However, so far no one has studied whether spiders adjust silk chemical and physical properties when encountering different types of prey. In this study, I used the giant wood spider Nephila pilipes to investigate (1) would N. pilipes adjust web structures, silk amino acid composition and silk physical properties when encountering different types of prey (2) would such changes enhance the catching efficiency of different prey and (3) were such changes generated by prey chemical composition or vibration signals? To answer these questions, I manipulated prey chemical composition and vibration signals by assigning N. pilipes into the following four feeding groups: (1) living crickets (group C), (2) living flies (group F), (3) dead cricket but with fly vibration signals (group Cd) and (4) dead flies but with cricket vibration signals (group Fd). After the feeding treatments were completed the following variables were compared between the feeding groups: web structures, silk amino acid composition, silk physical properties, retention time of different prey and vibration signal transmission rate of webs. The results showed that the webs built by spiders fed with living flies exhibited larger area, smaller mesh and longer fly retention time. However, such structural changes also reduced the vibration signal transmission ability of the web. On the other hand, webs built by spiders fed with living crickets were stiffer and retained crickets longer. Moreover, their silks exhibited higher percentages of alanine, glycine, glutamine and consequently higher elasticity and strength to cope with the larger prey. These results demonstrated that spiders can adjust web structures, silk protein composition and silk physical properties to enhance the catching efficiency of different prey. While the aforementioned variables differed significantly between spiders in C and F groups, they did not vary between spiders in Cd and Fd groups, in which groups the prey chemical composition and vibration signals were decoupled. Such result suggested that prey chemical composition and vibration signal were both needed in generating changes in web building behavior and silk gene expression in spiders.


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