臺灣國際科展

『吸凍!』--再造保麗龍的第二個春天

科展類別
臺灣國際科展
屆次
2003年
科別
環境科學
學校名稱
國立高雄師範大學附屬高級中學
指導老師
曾鶯芳、鄭龍
作者
鄭玉辰
關鍵字
保麗龍,造型磁鐵,廢物利用
備註
儲備代表

摘要或動機

中文摘要
本實驗先尋求將廢棄保麗龍磺酸化為陽離子交換樹脂(本實驗稱”保麗龍膠”)的方法。將保
麗龍依:丙酮溶解→硬化→打碎→與濃硫酸共煮三小時→浸於50%硫酸溶液中→沖洗→以水
浸泡的流程,即可達再造的目的;我們測得其磺酸化比例為62.5%。再利用「碘滴定法」(浸
泡式)與「相對電壓檢測法」(流動式),依次尋求保麗龍膠吸附金屬離子的最佳條件。其中「碘
滴定法」可有效測出銅離子濃度,但手續繁瑣;「相對電壓檢測法」最大的好處是知道保麗龍
膠何時吸附達飽和必須再生。
目前我們所知,要保麗龍膠達到吸附陽離子的最佳效能,其條件依次為:使用細粒的保
麗龍膠;低濃度的金屬離子溶液;質量愈大的保麗龍膠;低溫下較慢的金屬廢水流速及pH
值約為4.30 的銅離子廢水;鈉型的保麗龍膠吸附效能優於氫型。保麗龍膠對不同金屬離子亦
有吸附力,單位體積所含離子數愈少,初始的相對電壓會愈高;在相同莫耳濃度下,不同離
子的吸附力依次為Cr3+>Fe3+>Ni2+>Cu2+>Co2+;分次吸附確可將金屬離子完全去除;由
吸附等溫線觀察得知,可能保麗龍膠為多孔物質,導致500ppm 以下的吸附模式無法明確判
斷,1000ppm 以上則為物理吸附模式;保麗龍膠可以再生也可被覆在砂粒上達到不錯的吸附
效能;最後,我們將吸附過金屬離子的保麗龍廢膠與硫酸鈣、紙漿及些許的石灰(質量依序為
13 克、13 克、7 克、0.04 克)混合,可製成類似紙黏土,做成造型磁鐵,廢物利用十分有趣。

Abstract
The Experiment will, first of all, explore the ways to sulfonate expandable polystyrene into
cation ion exchange resin (called “polystyrene rubber” hereafter in the experiment). The procedures
of treating expandable polystyrene are as follows: acetone dissolve→hardening→smashing→
boiling with sulfuric acid for three hours→immersing in 50% sulfuric acid solution→washing→
immersing in water so that we may reach the goal of reconstruction. We calculate the sulfonated
rate to be 62.5%. Then we make use of “Iodine Titration”(immersion method) and “Opposite
Voltage”(floating method) to seek for the best conditions of adsorption the metallic ion through
polystyrene rubber. The former can effectively calculate the concentration of copper ion, but the
procedures are quite complex. The greatest advantage of the “Opposite Voltage” method is that we
may know when the adsorption of polystyrene rubber is saturated and should be regenerated.
As far as we know at present, the conditions of obtaining the best effect that polystyrene may
adsorb the cation ion are as follows: fine particles of polystyrene rubber; low concentration metallic
solution; polystyrene rubber of which the mass is greater; at lower temperature, slower waste water
flow speed and the copper ion waste water with pH 4.30; the adsorption effect of sodium type
polystyrene rubber is better than the hydrogen type. Polystyrene rubber also has adsorption effect
toward different metallic ion. The less ion per cubic contains, the higher the original opposite
voltage. With the same mole concentration, different ion adsorption effects may range as follows:
Cr3+>Fe3+>Ni2+>Cu2+>Co2+. The batch adsorption definitely may erase metallic ion completely.
By observing the adsorption isotherm, possibly because the polystyrene rubber is a multi-apertured
matter, we find that it is impossible to judge exactly the adsorption model of those metallic ion
solutions of which the concentrations are below 500ppm. Those which are over 1,000ppm belong to
physical adsorption models. Polystyrene may be regenerated and get an adsorption effect by coating
sand particals. In the last analysis, we may make paper clay and magnets of different styles by
mixing the adsorbed metallic ion polystyrene rubber with calcium sulfate, paper pulp and a little
lime(the mass are respectively 13g, 13g, 7g, and 0.04g). The reuse of waste is really very
interesting.


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