本研究目的主要在瞭解昆蟲的複眼(compound eyes)結構，比較晝行性與夜行性昆蟲複眼之差異，探討其視覺遠近和複眼結構的關連，及進一步觀察其對不同波長光源反應的差異。本實驗使用反射式及倒立式顯微鏡來觀察複眼及其小眼的結構，及觀察其成像情形，並使用攝影式接觸分析儀與放大管來探討視覺遠近和小眼表面曲率之關連，另外在暗室利用不同波長的光源照射蝴蝶以觀察其反應。實驗結果顯示複眼是由數千至數萬個小眼組成，小眼表面曲率半徑隨選用物種在25.3μm 至117.6μm 之間，蜻蜓複眼上半部和下半部小眼曲率半徑分別為30.6μm、117.6μm，印證了蜻蜓複眼上看遠下看近的說法，也發現蝦子小眼是正方形，其他實驗物種則皆為六邊形，而蝴蝶對光的反應程度則是隨波長漸增而遞減。The main purpose of this study is to understand the structure of the compound eye of insects, to compare the difference between the diurnal insect’s compound eye (apposition eye) and that of the nocturnal insect (superposition eye), to explore the relationship between the vision and the structure of the compound eye, and to observe the eye’s reaction to the different light wave length. In this study, a microscope (OLYMPUS BX51M) and an inverted microscope (OLYMPUS 1X71) were used to observe the structure of the compound eye and its ommatidia, as well as the resulting image. A contact angle measuring instrument (Dataphyscis OCA 20) and a microscope (Mitutoyo NAVITAR) were used to determine the connection between the vision distance and the facet curvature of ommatidia. The butterfly’s reaction to the light source with different wave length was also observed in a darkroom. It was observed that the compound eye of insects is composed of more than a thousand ommatidia. Among the subject insects, the facet curvature radius of their ommatidia ranged from 25.3μm to 117.6μm. The radius of the top and bottom half of a dragonfly is 30.6μm and 117.6μm. It confirms a scientific finding that dragonfly’s top compound eye focuses farther than the bottom half. The facet of each ommatidium observed is hexagonal in insects compared with the square shape found in the eye structure of shrimp. Regarding the reaction to light of the butterfly eye; the reaction decreased when the light wave length increased.