臺灣國際科展

口琴簧片振動與氣流的影響

科展類別
臺灣國際科展
屆次
2008年
科別
物理與太空科學
學校名稱
臺北市立麗山高級中學
指導老師
徐志成、盛寶徵
作者
陳泓文
關鍵字
口琴 簧片

摘要或動機

本研究主題在測量口琴簧片受到各種氣流因子影響後,所產生音色、音頻等變化之探討。在過去我們認為,一片簧片不論如何吹奏,其發出的頻率皆相同。但是事實上,演奏家控制氣流的強弱、方向、渦流等,便可吹奏出多樣的音頻。探討形狀因子對簧片頻率的影響,如:長度、寬度、厚度對頻率所造成的影響。自製口琴,利用變壓器控制送風機風速。探討氣流因子對簧片主頻之影響,利用各種不同的自製吹嘴,改變風速、角度、渦流…等,找出可能使簧片改變頻率的氣流因素。實驗結果發現改變風速會影響簧片主頻的變化,風速越大,頻率越大,為一條平滑線。但並非一直都會上升,當簧片頻率上升至某一極限,便無法再利用風速使頻率上升。例如實驗四吸音標準狀態下,風速大於8 Kt 後,頻率一直停在429Hz。在外加障礙物時(模擬吹奏舌頭時隆起)和標準狀態(正常零度入射)下頻率比較吹音和吸音有明顯的差異。吹音時,同風速下,其頻率比標準狀態高,發生音升;吸音時,同風速下,其頻率比標準狀態低,發生音降,具應用性。我們發現在頻率改變時,簧片的振動型態會有所不同,所以利用高畫素像機拍攝和電腦相位差算出簧片之曲折點至尾端的距離,發現頻率和簧片之曲折點至尾端的距離成正向關係。如實驗五中頻率從414 至419Hz,簧片的曲折點到振動端距離也明顯變大。我們發現吹嘴和口琴只要稍有一點空隙(大約在0.2cm 左右),便會和完全吻合時有顯著的頻率差距(吻合後大約比有空隙低20Hz 左右),此實驗頻率變化現象和現實壓音頻率變化極為相近。實驗過程中發現,改變簧片吹嘴的吻合程度,吹入口琴的風速相近,但頻率變化卻也有壓音的音頻變化。在實驗三加入各種氣流因子發現入射角度和標準情形差異不明顯,因此推論壓音的頻率變化和風力強度、入射角度關係不大,壓音主要為渦流所造成的現象。簧片振動模式改變,導致簧片振動頻率發生變化,且簧片的自然頻率不變。當壓音產生時,氣流在振動面造成妨礙簧片振動的抗力,但琴格內部同時也給簧片的風壓,使簧片產生一種非自然振動的頻率。The theme of the research is to explore the changes on its timbre and frequency after the harmonica reed is influenced by each kind of air current factor .In the past ,most people think no matter how to play the reed ,the frequency it produced was supposed to be the same. But in fact the frequency will be changeable under different direction, turbulent flow and air intension by the perform. First to explore the basic feature of harmonica reed, for example: The length, the width, thickness cause the influence on the frequency. To make the self-made harmonica, using the transformer control air feeder wind speed. To discussion the influenced caused by air current factors,and use each kind of different self-restraint to boast, change the wind speed, angle, turbulent flow ,in order to discover possible factors the reed causes to change the frequency of the air current factor. The experimental result discovered the change of wind speed can affect the change of basic frequency , the stronger speed cause the bigger frequency, It will be a curve. But it will not be rising continuously, when the reed frequency rise to some limit, it is unable to cause the frequency rise again by using the wind speed. For example experiment four sound absorption standard conditions, after the wind speed is higher than 8 Kt, the frequency continuously stops in 429Hz. To compare obstacle (simulation plays when tongue sticks out) and the standard condition (normal zero degree incidence) , comparison blows the sound agreement sound absorption to have the obvious difference. When blows the sound, under the same wind speed, its frequency is higher than the standard condition, has the sound to rise; When sound absorption, under the same wind speed, its frequency is lower than the standard condition, has the sound to fall. The harmonica terminology for presses the sound, extremely has the application. We discovered when frequency change, the reed vibration condition have differently, therefore use the camera photography and the computer phase different figures out the reed winding point to the end distance, discovered the frequency and the reed winding point relate to end distance is being connected. If tests five medium frequencies from 414 to 419Hz, the reed winding point is away from to the vibration end also obviously changes . The different reed vibration condition cause the frequency to change. Natural frequency is constant. When cause “bending” (the frequency is lower than the standard condition), the airflow make a force keep from reed vibration. But the chamber air pressure still drive reed. therefore cause the reed to give off not natural frequency sound


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