臺灣國際科展

從小玩意探討大問題-磁浮隔空旋轉器的轉動情形與磁場變化之研究

科展類別
臺灣國際科展
屆次
2004年
科別
物理科
學校名稱
高雄市立五福國民中學
指導老師
張榮富、黃慧龍
作者
莊淳喬
關鍵字
磁浮,磁場變化

摘要或動機

磁浮隔空旋轉器是由一個旋轉軸和底座構成,利用兩者間相互排斥的磁力, 產生隔空漂浮的效果。本研究首先對旋轉軸的結構加以分析,並設計啟動裝置, 探討啟動電壓、旋轉軸重量及底座磁力等因素對漂浮轉動的影響。 我們分析維持旋轉平衡的各種作用力,並探討旋轉軸重心位置與摩擦力的關 係,以驗證我們的分析結果。此外,我們也利用自行設計的啟動裝置,提供穩定 的初始轉速,探討旋轉軸重心位置不同時,持續轉動時間的變化,進一步驗證所 做的分析。 為了瞭解磁場在旋轉軸漂浮過程中發生的變化,我們設計了支架把空間座標 化,再以高斯計測量出各點的磁場,獲得各平面的磁場強度分佈圖。配合磁力線 分佈圖與所測得的磁場強度分佈圖,我們以一個嶄新的分析模式,將抽象的磁場 概念具體化,使我們對旋轉軸放置前後及磁力與重力平衡時的磁場變化,更深入 的了解,同時也發現磁場強度會隨距離的增加而減弱。 最後我們在旋轉器上裝置感應線圈,經由旋轉實驗測得感應電壓的存在,證 明旋轉器轉動時,磁場會產生變化。 經由對磁浮隔空旋轉器的探討,我們得以了解它的漂浮原理、磁力與摩擦力 間的平衡關係,以及旋轉前後磁場變化。The Magnetic Floating Spinner(MFS) is composed of one spinner with a magnetic base. The floating effect of the spinner is caused by the interaction between the two opposite magnetic fields. We first analyzed the detail structure of the MFS, and then designed a starter to rotate it. Later, we studied the effect of starting electric potential, the weight of the spinner and the magnetic force of the base on the floating movement. We presented an explanation for the forces that maintained the floating of the spinner and, to support that, we studied the friction force with the position change of the spinner gravity centre. We also used the starter designed by us to provide a stable initial rotating force and analyzed the relationship between the change of gravity centre position and the duration of rotation. In order to understand the magnetic field change during floating movement, we designed a spatial frame to coordinate the spinner that floated above the base. We measured the surrounding magnetic force with the Goth’s apparatus and conducted a magnetic force distribution diagram. According to this diagram and the line of magnetic force, we therefore provide a brand new analysis model , which bring the abstract concepts of the magnetic field into a concrete theory. This research not only brings us to understand the magnetic field change of the spinner before and after its placement over the base and the balance between the magnetic and the gravity force, but also reveals that the magnetic force will wane with the increase of distance. Finally, we placed an induction coil by the spinner to detect a voltage change during spinner movement. This is an evidence that the magnetic field will change during the spinner movement. Through the study of MFS, we can now understand why it floats, the balance between magnetic and friction force, and the change of the magnetic force before and after the spinner movement. MFS = Magnetic Floating Spinner


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