臺灣國際科展

天空之城耐震設計與隔震技術之探討

科展類別
臺灣國際科展
屆次
2005年
科別
物理科
學校名稱
臺北縣立永和國民中學
作者
邱垂青、黃毓棠
關鍵字
耐震設計,隔震技術

摘要或動機

我們的研究包括兩部份,第一部份是實地調查訪問。瞭解地震成因、傷害及現有防震方法,並調查坊間各種建築物類型,及常見私自改變建築物結構現象,做為研究的基礎。第二部份為建築物抗震實驗。研究發現:牆面挖空、頂樓加蓋、樓層挑高,建築物會在該處產生弱點,由此斷裂。柱子數量相同下,散開時支撐力較弱。不對稱建築物遇震時會不自然扭轉且易倒。隔震素材恰當,能有效提高耐震力。滑軌、彈珠隔震效果很好,但位移太大,為實際建築所不容許。建物下加裝阻尼材料,能吸收部份地震能量,降低地震對建築物的危害,並有效控制位移問題,是良好的隔震素材。樓頂加裝消能設施亦能減震,但設計極其不易。 The research includes two parts. In the first part the work is concentrated on on-site visiting and investigation such as understanding the cause of earthquake, the damage and the preventive method currently available, investigating the different types of building and the phenomenon of altering the structure of an existing building without permission by government authorities which is popularly seen in Taiwan. These are considered as the basis of the research. The second part is the experimental study of earthquake resistance of a building. The test results showed that weak-point can be caused at the place where the existing wall is moved or an extra building is attached to the roof or the structure of building has extended space between floors, and fracture always occurs at the weak-point. If the number of columns of a building is the same, then the scattering arranged location of columns is weaker than concentrating type of arrangement of columns. The building having unsymmetrical structure will twist in uneven fashion that causes the building apt to collapse in case of earthquake. Employing proper vibration-absorption material can effectively increase earthquake resistance. Sliding rails and balls can provide satisfiable vibration-isolation effect, but can also cause too much displacement of building structure. Install damping material beneath the building can absorb part of the energy of earthquake, and decrease the damage, and can solve the problem of displacement of building, therefore, damping material can be considered as an ideal vibration-isolation material. Install energy-attenuation equipment can also reduce vibration but the design of the equipment is extremely difficult.


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