臺灣國際科展

Self Assembly Mechanism of Water Drotlets

科展類別
臺灣國際科展
屆次
2006年
科別
物理科
學校名稱
臺北市立中山女子高級中學、臺北市立和平高級中學
指導老師
高君陶、沈忠信
作者
王啟芸、王啟倫

摘要或動機

這是一系列關於水蒸氣冷凝為極細微小水珠的長程實驗。其中可以分為下列三個階段:第一階段是基礎實驗。將水氣導入至潔淨的光滑表面上(蓋玻片),觀察水珠冷凝的機制。第二階段是在外加磁場及電場作用下,將水氣導入至潔淨的光滑表面(蓋玻片),觀察水珠冷凝的機制。這部分的實驗推翻了一般「水分子是電中性,在電場或磁場中不受影響 」的刻板觀念!實驗所呈現出來的冷凝水珠,不但有明確的自我組成模式( Self assembly pattern)。並且發現:電場會增速凝結水珠的成長(Aggregation),而磁場則會抑制凝結水珠的成長。第三階段是將水蒸氣導引至超聲波的環境中:我們先將超聲波訊號產生器(變頻、定頻)面向於載台旁,再讓水氣導入至潔淨的光滑表面上(蓋玻片),觀察冷凝水珠的機制。當使用固定頻率超聲波波源,我們發現:在超聲波場中水珠的成長會受到抑制,且成長速率會隨著頻率的升高而逐漸減小。第一階段與第二階段的實驗結果與討論已分別發表於2004 年及2005 年的台灣國際科學展覽報告中,本作品將詳述第三階段。 This experiment explores the basic nature of the condensation of water vapor into droplets on the surfaces of cover glasses. This condensation occurs because of the difference in temperature between the water vapor and the cover glass. The condensation process is observed under a microscope. The growth of the droplets can be described as: nucleation, aggregation (piling up) and coalescence. The growth is irrelevant to surfaces or environments. It is found that the temperature difference of moist air over the cover glass do not affect the nucleation size of the droplets in simple plain surroundings; while the change of flow rate does. In general, the coalescence is speeded up at higher temperatures. Furthermore, the effects of electric fields 、magnetic fields and ultrasonic waves are also studied. It can be observed that the size of water droplets become smaller and grow more uniformly under magnetic fields or imposed ultrasonic waves; also, the aggregation rate is decreased by imposed magnetic fields or ultrasonic waves, and it is increased by imposed electric fields. These effects of magnetic fields 、electric fields and imposed ultrasonic waves might be related to the flow conditions and the vibration of surrounding air in the system. This experiment provides the first step in the understanding of the formation of water droplets and their self assembly mechanism in different environment.


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