臺灣國際科展

利用浮沈子測量液體表面張力並演示"Cheerios Cheerios effect"

科展類別
臺灣國際科展
屆次
2006年
科別
物理科
學校名稱
國立嘉義高級中學
指導老師
李文堂、林芳妃
作者
高頌凱
關鍵字
浮沈子測量,液體表面張力
備註
美國正選代表:美國第 57屆國際科技展覽會

摘要或動機

密閉容器置入待測液,放入浮沉子,施加壓力,當浮沉子恰要沒入液中瞬間,因表面張力的總力達極大值且向上,外加壓力(p1)為極大值,浮沉子沒入液中;液面減壓,當浮沉子在液面正下方時,外加壓力 p2,量 p1、(p1- p2),浮沉子的質量 m,外半徑 R,及玻璃管的體積 G V ,可求得液體表面張力。 液面再減壓,浮沉子恰要露出液面時,表面張力的總力達極大值且向下,外加壓力(p3)為極小值,量 p3、(p2- p3),浮沈子的質量 m,外半徑 R及 G V ,應亦可求得表面張力;但實驗時浮沉子漂移到容器邊,並吸附在器壁上,因此發現浮沉子的”Cheerios effect”。 利用浮沉子和容器的相吸及相斥現象,可解釋西式早餐的小榖片放入牛奶中為何會漂移到碗緣,並支持 Vella在 2005 年 9 月份美國物理期刊(AJP)認為 Cheerios effect的成因除了由於接觸角不同外,浮力、重力、表面張力共同作用,使小榖片間有相吸、相斥現象。 The experiment apparatus is equipped with a Cartesian diver by using a glass tube with air trapped inside that floats or submerses in a closed vessel containing liquid. The external pressure may be varied with a syringe and measured with a water manometer. The maximum pressure P1 inside the vessel is measured when the diver is just about to sink, where the surface tension that acts on the diver is upward. Then the pressure P2 of the vessel is measured when the diver is just beneath the liquid surface, where no surface tension acts on the diver. Finally, the surface tension is calculated from P1, P2 and the radius of the diver, R. When the pressure inside the vessel is decreased, the diver will rise. As the diver is about to emerge from the liquid, we get the minimum pressure P3 inside the vessel, and the surface tension that acts on the diver is downward. By measuring P3, P2, and R, the magnitude of surface tension is found to be the same as above. When the diver is just about to sink into the liquid, it floats to the center of the vessel. When the diver is about to emerge from the liquid, it sticks to the wall of the vessel. This phenomenon is named the “Cheerios effect.” Our results again strongly support that the cause of the effect is due to the different contact angles between the diver and water, as well as the balance of gravity and surface tension in the case of the sinking diver, and the balance of buoyancy and surface tension in the case of rising diver as Vella claimed in his paper (AJP 73, 817 (2005)).


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