流體碰撞物體所產生的波形之研究及應用

科展類別
臺灣國際科展
屆次
2007年
科別
物理科
學校名稱
臺北市立建國高級中學
指導老師
鄭永銘
作者
彭 陸、蕭屹宏
關鍵字
流體,波形,表面張力

摘要或動機

當流體由圓管流下,在碰撞到物體後水流會產生類似駐波的形狀。為瞭解此現象的產生機制,及影響此現象的變因,我們改變流體的表面張力、流速及與碰撞物體間的距離,以探討各變因對波形所產生的影響,進而研究此現象的成因。由實驗結果發現波形會因流速加快、擋板距離增加、表面張力減少而有波長變短的趨勢,且可以用表面張力波的理論解釋。由理論推導的結果,可測量液體表面張力。由於圓球狀的外型使表面積增大,可增加液體之散熱的面積,因此可應用在水冷系統方面。A phenomenon similar to the standing wave, which occurs when a slow-velocity fluid jet collides with an obstacle, was observed. Because the free surface profile was observed to be stable, the phenomenon was not considered as standing wave. To understand the mechanism of this phenomenon and the factors that can affect the free surface profile, the surface tension of the fluid, jet velocity and the distance between the exit of the tube and the obstacle are varied to study their influences on the free surface profile. According to our experiment, the wave length is shortened when the jet velocity or the distance between the tube and the obstacle increases or when the surface tension decreases. The tendency of the investigated phenomenon can be explained by the capillary wave theory. Based on Bernoulli’s principle, continuity principle and surface tension\r
equation, an ODE (ordinary differential equation) could be formulated. By using numerical method to solve this ODE, we predict the free surface profile which could match the experimental photo well. The tendency of the phenomenon can also be explained by the ODE. In order to measure the surface tension of the fluid, we wish to minimize the experiment apparatus. To enhance our assumption we use laser to locate the individual particle that we add in the fluid and calculate the velocity field of the flow jet.


「為配合國家發展委員會「推動ODF-CNS15251為政府為文件標準格式實施計畫」,以及 提供使用者有文書軟體選擇的權利,本館檔案下載部分文件將公布ODF開放文件格式, 免費開源軟體可至LibreOffice 下載安裝使用,或依貴慣用的軟體開啟文件。」

檔案名稱 檔案大小 格式
流體碰撞物體所產生的波形之研究及應用 770 KB Adobe Reader(Pdf)檔案