國王的海市蜃樓

科展類別
臺灣國際科展
屆次
2007年
科別
物理科
學校名稱
國立嘉義女子高級中學
指導老師
莊立山、莊立帆
作者
戴君容、陳冠樺
關鍵字
海市蜃樓,單向反射,全反射
備註
新加坡正選代表:新加坡第30 屆青年科學節

摘要或動機

在夏日的午後,在炎熱的柏油路面上很容易可觀察到遠方的 路面上,出現如鏡子般的倒影,看起來彷彿前方有一灘水,但當 我們向前進一些時,倒影卻突然消失了,這個現象,一般稱為海 市蜃樓。 一般解釋海市蜃樓的成因,都是由於在上層的低溫空氣,和 在下層靠近路面的高溫空氣,因密度的不同,以致於折射率的漸 層差異,繼而產生全反射。 但我們觀察發現,地面與上層空氣的溫差,並非柏油路面上 假積水現象及倒影出現的必要條件;反而和入射光的角度、路面 的平坦程度及路面的性質有關。我們提出了粗糙面在入射光的入 射角接近90度時,可發生單向反射的模型。並由實驗來驗證假積 水現象及倒影主要的成因是「柏油路面的單向反射」而非「空氣 的折射與全反射」。 Under the scorching sunshine, we can see the reflection on the tarmac in the distance just like a water puddle on the road. And the water also reflects the people and object nearby. But, in fact, the tarmac road over there is very hot and dry. Therefore we call the phenomenon as the “false water puddle on the tarmac.” According to the textbook , the main reason for “false water puddle on the tarmac” is that the temperature difference leads to the refraction of the light and causes the phenomenon. However, from our observation, the theory still can’t explain some phenomenon, For example, the “false water puddle on the tarmac” remains to appear when the wind blows fiercely. Even with little temperature different at night the phenomenon is still obvious. Therefore, in our opinion, the temperature different of the air is not a necessary condition of “ the false water puddle on the tarmac.” We bring up the model to explain the phenomenon that when the incident angle of the light approach 90 degrees, the light will result in one-way reflection. According to the model, furthermore, we make experiments at midnight and at dawn. The result of the experiment assures us the hypothesis of the model, Consequently, we hold the ideal that the main condition of the “false water puddle on the tarmac.” Is not because of the refraction and the total reflection but because the light reflects off the road and result in the one-way reflection on the tarmac road.


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