臺灣國際科展

外來植物的入侵-非洲大鳳仙的生態探討

科展類別
臺灣國際科展
屆次
2004年
科別
環境科學
學校名稱
臺北市私立再興高級中學
指導老師
顏俊雄
作者
鍾孟庭
關鍵字
外來植物,非洲大鳳仙

摘要或動機

Generally speaking in order for a exotic plant life to dominate over the local ecology, the following factors must hold true:
1. A close proximity of the environment (including geographical and climatic factors) 2. A lack of nature enemy and competitor 3. A strong reproductive and adaptability capacity. Base on the above factors, We will be using Field Observation record, Sample placement, virtual environment factor experiment and other methods to conducing our
investigation. This study shown the African Touch-Me-Not(Impatiens wallerana) has a strong reproductive and adaptability capacity. Even under adverse condition the African Touch-Me-Not survive for a period of time. It can produce flowers then fruits all year round, within each fruit there is on average 45 seeds with, under the right condition,
near 100% germination rate. It can also reproduce asexually via cutting. Taiwan’s warm and humid geographical condition is similar to its origin of Africa. And so far haven’t found any obvious natural enemy. In the future this plant will be likely to spread on the low to mid. level mountain region. It also can be seen that the divergence within its habitat is low. Therefore it will decrease the variety, the density and the diversification of the local eco-system. Here to advise the government’s forestry and agriculture department, to study the relevant ecological information on this species, when they are considering popularization this plant. Using the information to evaluate the impact of this plant may have on the environment, and use it as a guideline for their plant conservation policy. 一般而言,外來植物入侵本地原生植群成功的條件有:一、相似的環境(包括地理、氣候等因素)。二、缺乏天敵及競爭對手。三、旺盛的繁殖力和適應力。針對上述條件,利用野外觀察記錄、樣區設置及模擬環境因子實驗等方法,來探討非洲大鳳仙未來是否會在臺灣蔓延、擴展進而影響本土的生態系。結果顯示非洲大鳳仙有旺盛的繁殖力和適應力,?使在不利的環境下,短時間不會死亡。一年四季皆可開花結果,每粒果實平均有四十五粒種子。環境適宜時,有接近百分之百的萌發率,亦可用莖進行無性繁殖。另外,臺灣溫暖多雨的地理環境亦與其原產地非洲相似,且未發現明顯天敵,未來極有可能在中低海拔山區蔓延。調查也發現它生長的地區岐異度明顯偏低,使其他植物種類、密度減少,生物多樣性降低。因此建議政府、森林、園藝和農業工作人員在推廣時,多吸取相關物種的生態學資訊,評估其對環境可能造成之影響,以作為植物保育之重要參考。


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