臺灣國際科展

蛙!到底發生了什麼事?探討溪谷生態系畸形蛙的發生原因及其生態學之研?

科展類別
臺灣國際科展
屆次
2005年
科別
環境科學
學校名稱
臺北市立內湖高級中學
作者
鄭雅心、李妍荻
關鍵字
溪谷生態系,畸形蛙
備註
候補作品:智利2005年國際科學博覽會

摘要或動機

Our research started from June, 2003 to May, 2004. During these twelve months, we collected and discussed the basic ecology material of malformed “ Rana latouchii ”, which we call it frog in the following paragraphs . Thanks for the favorable geographical position, we collected the first-hand data in the area of Jin-Mian Mountain foothill gully situated in Taipei. Our investtigation project includes:the percentage of the malformed frogs in a whole race, the geographical distribution of dominant-abnormal frogs, the sexual distribution of dominant-abnormal forgs, and the possible roots for the generation of malformed frogs. We have altogether carried seventy-six times field investigations. In those investigations, we focused our research on the randomly-sampled 580 Rana latouchii. In these 580 sample, there are 190 female, 350 male, and 40 adolescent. We discovered seventy-six malformed frogs, constituteed by 21 female, 53 male and 2 adolescent. In another words, the occurance of malformed frog in a race is around 13.1. %. In our observation, we can classify dominant-abnormal frogs, “Rana latouchii”, into eight species. Here are the species: 1. the entire body is obviously malformed, 2. with only one eye, 3. in lack of appendage apod, 4. in lack of arms,5. in lack of palms, 6. with excess webbed toes, 7. the maltfromed of appendiculars, 8. the lack of toes on the palms. Within these 8 species, the last species has the highest occurance, 66.38% in aproximation. If we look at the classfication by sex, the ratio of female to male is around 1 to 2.52(1:2.52). However, the possibility of being maleformed is regarded as the same for female and male frogs in the same group. In statistical term, our research shows that the chi-square is 1.742 while our degree of freedom is 1 and confidence level is 95% (X2=1.742,df=1,p>0.05). During the research, we also observe that each malformed species affect different living activities of malformed frogs. In the worst situation, the malformed nature can result in shorter life. In our sampling area, malformed frogs mostly reside in high concealment and high humidity location. In our research data, within these area, our re-captured rate for malformed frogs is 25% and hirudin-parastical rate is 4.31%. As our research shows, the occurance of malformed “Rana latouchii” in our selected area results from 3 main causes: First, the parasitism of leeches or parasitic worm;Second, the agriculturally chemical contaminants;Third , the injured causes from escape from predator. 本研究自2003年6 月至2004年5月為止,共12個月的期間,於臺北市內湖區金面山南麓溪谷,對拉都希氏蛙(Rana latouchii)族群之畸形蛙個體進行基本生態資料的蒐集與探討,調查項目包括:族群中畸形蛙發生的比例、畸形蛙外部形質異常分佈的情形、族群中雌蛙與雄蛙發生外部形質異常之情況及可能造成畸形蛙產生的原因。 研究期間共進行了76次的野外調查,總紀錄了拉都希氏蛙580隻,雌蛙有190隻,雄蛙有350隻,幼蛙有40隻;畸形蛙個體共紀錄有76隻,雌性畸形蛙有21隻,雄性畸形蛙有53隻,幼體畸形蛙有2隻。族群中畸形蛙發生率約為:13.10%,外部形質異常的畸形拉都希氏蛙總計有八大類,包括:1.整隻個體形質畸形,2.單眼個體,3.附肢缺少,4.附肢缺臂,5.附肢缺掌,6.腳掌多趾,7.附肢腳掌畸形,8.附肢腳掌缺趾,其中以附肢腳掌缺趾類的66.38%發生率最高。畸形蛙中雌雄比約為1:2.52,族群中雌蛙與雄蛙發生畸形的比例並無顯著的差異(X2=1.742,df=1,p>0.05)。 不同部位形質畸形的發生,將會影響畸形蛙的個體活動,甚至可能降低畸形蛙的存活機率。研究調查樣區中,畸形蛙較常活動於濕度高且隱蔽度大的分樣區中,畸形蛙的重複捕捉率為25%,被水蛭寄生的比例則約是4.31%。 由調查研究結果顯示,造成內湖金面山區南麓溪谷拉都希氏蛙畸形蛙發生的主要原因,推測可能有下列幾種:(1)水蛭或是吸蟲類的寄生;(2)農作過程中的化學污染物;(3)逃脫掠食者捕食過程受傷。


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